Hadrat Salman Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah has said,
لا يغتسل رجل يوم الجمعة ، ويتطهر ما استطاع من طهر ، ويدهن من دهنه ، أو يمس من طيب بيته ثم يخرج ، فلا يفرق بين اثنين ، ثم يصلى ما كتب له ، ثم ينصت إذا تكلم الإمام ، إلا غفر له ما بينه وبين الجمعة الأخرى
“If a man takes bath on Friday; purifies himself as much as he can with ablution, applies oil from his oils, or uses any available perfume in his house, then goes out and, without squeezing between two men, prays what is prescribed for him, then remains silent when the Imam speaks (delivers sermon) his (minor) sins between that time and the next Friday will be forgiven.” [Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 1, Page 121, Book on the Friday Prayer]
Hadrat Abu Hurairah Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah has said,
إذا كان يوم الجمعة ، وقفت الملائكة على باب المسجد يكتبون الأول فالأول ، ومثل المهجر كمثل الذى يهدى بدنة ، ثم كالذى يهدى بقرة ، ثم كبشا ، ثم دجاجة ، ثم بيضة ، فإذا خرج الإمام طووا صحفهم ، ويستمعون الذكر
“When Friday comes, the angels stand at the door of the mosque recording the people in the order of their arrival. The parable of the first comer is like the parable of one who sends (to Makkah) a she-camel for sacrifice; the man who comes next is like the one who sends a cow for sacrifice, next a sheep, next like the one who sends a hen, next like the one who sends an egg. Then when the Imam stand up (on the Minbar/Pulpit) to deliver the sermon, they close their sheets and listen to the remembrance (sermon).” [Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 1, Page 127, Book on the Friday Prayer / Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, Page 282, Book on the Friday Prayer]
Hadrat Samurah ibn Jundab Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah has said,
من ترك الجمعة من غير عذر فليتصدق بدينار فإن لم يجد فبنصف دينار
“Whosoever omits the Friday prayer without excuse he should give a Dinar in alms; or if he does not have (it), half a Dinar.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad, Vol. 5, Page 632 / Sunan Abi Dawud, Vol. 1, Page 151, Book on Prayer]
Hadrat Samurah ibn Jundub Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah has said,
احضروا الذكر وادنوا من الإمام فإن الرجل لا يزال يتباعد حتى يؤخر فى الجنة وإن دخلها
“Be present at the sermon (delivered on Fridays) and draw near the Imam; because whoever always keeps far away will likewise, be far away (towards the back) in Paradise, even though he will enter it.” [Sunan Abi Dawud, Vol. 1, Page 158, Book on Prayer]
Hadrat Ibn ‘Umar Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah has said,
إذا نعس أحدكم يوم الجمعة فليتحول من مجلسه ذلك
“When any of you dozes (in the Masjid) during the Friday prayer, he should change his place (if possible).” [Sunan Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, Page 115, Chapters on the Friday Prayer]
Hadrat Anas Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu reported that
إذا اشتد البرد بكر بالصلاة ، وإذا اشتد الحر أبرد بالصلاة ، يعنى الجمعة
When it was very cold, the Holy Prophet used to observe the prayer early; and when it was very hot, he used to delay the prayer till it was cooler. This refers to the Friday prayer. [Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 1, Page 124, Book on the Friday Prayer]
1. All those who listen to the mu’azzin calling out the Adhan for the Friday prayers in front of the Imam, should not reply to his words. This is a more preventative ruling. [Fatawa-e-Radawiyyah]
It has been stated in al-Durr al-Mukhtar [Page 57]:
One should not reply with the tongue, to the words of the Adhan called in front of the imam, prior to the Khutba (sermon).
In Radd al-Muhtar Vol. 1 Page 575 it has been stated:
It is makruh (disliked) to reply to the (words of the) Adhan at such a time.
2. On hearing the Adhan for the Khutba, when the mu’azzin calls out the Blessed Name of the Holy Prophet, then it is best not to kiss ones thumbs at that time. The Durud Sharif (invoking blessings) on the Messenger of Allah should also be recited from the heart; not from the tongue, as remaining silent in this particular time is Fard (obligatory). This rule only applies to the adhan for the khutba, otherwise in the other adhans one should kiss their thumbs, place them on their eyes as this is Mustahab. [Fatawa-e-Radawiyyah]
In Radd al-Muhtar Vol. 1 Page 575, it has been stated:
The more favoured opinion is to invoke blessings (send durud) upon the Holy prophet from one’s heart (and to recite anything from the tongue).
3. To read the khutba in any language other than Arabic or to amalgamate another language with the khutba read in Arabic is disliked (makruh) and against the sunnat that has been transmitted from our pious predecessors. [Fatawa-e-Radawiyyah, Bahar-e-Shari’at]
4. Some people lift their hands in the time that is between the two khutbas delivered by the Imam. This should not be done, as it is necessary to remain silent throughout and in between the two khutbas. [Bahar-e-Shari’at – Vol. 1 Chapter 4 Page 90-91]
5. It is not permissible to establish the Friday Prayer in villages. However, if people do pray it, then one should not prevent them. [Fatawa-e-Radawiyyah]
6. Because the Friday Prayer is not allowed in the villages (and in some countries), the Zohar (Mid-Noon prayer) is still fard upon them, though they may have prayed the Friday Prayer. Hence, it is obligatory that one prays the 4 Rakahs fardh salaah for Zohar if one has prayed the Friday Prayer in villages or places where the Friday Prayer cannot be established due to reasons as explained by the Shari’ah.
From where should the Adhan for the Khutba be Called?
Hadrat Sa’ib ibn Yazid reported that
كان يؤذن بين يدى رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- إذا جلس على المنبر يوم الجمعة على باب المسجد وأبى بكر وعمر
When the Holy Prophet used to sit on the pulpit (on Friday), the call to prayer (adhan) was said near the door of the mosque, in front of the Holy Prophet. This was the same manner in which the adhan was called in the times of Hadrat Abubakr and Hadrat ‘Umar. [Sunan Abi Dawud, Vol. 1, Page 155, Book on Prayer]
From this Hadith we understand that it is Sunnah to call the Adhan from outside of the Masjid (Prayer Hall). The Adhan for the Khutbah during the blessed era of the Holy Prophet and his blessed vicegerents: Hadrat Abubakr and Hadrat ‘Umar was always called from outside of the Masjid. This is why the scholars have disallowed calling the adhan from inside the Masjid. [This has been stated in Fatawa-e-Qazi Khan Vol. 1 Page 78, Fatawa-e-’Alamgiri Vol. 1 Page 55.]
In al-Bahr al-Raiq it has been stated:
It is impermissible to call the Adhan from inside the Masjid. [Vol. 1 Page 268]
In Fath al-Qadir it has been stated:
The scholars of Jurisprudence have stated that the Adhan should not be given from inside the Masjid. [Vol. 1 Page 215]
In al-Tahtawi (hashiya on Maraqiy al-Falah) it has been stated:
It is makruh (disliked) to give the Adhan from inside the Masjid. This has also been stated in al-Qahastani. [Page 17]
Hence, the practice of calling the Adhan from inside the Masjid is incorrect. It is obligatory upon Muslims to leave what is wrong and abide by the rules of fiqh and Hadith.