I. Hadrat ibn 'Umar said, “The Prophet made incumbent on every male or female, free man or slave, young or old, the payment of one Sa' of dates or barley as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr. The Messenger of Allah commanded that this sadaqah be paid before one goes to perform the Eid prayer.” [Sahih Bukhari - Book on Zakah, Volume 1, Page 204]
II. Hadrat Hasan said: Hadrat Ibn Abbas preached the people towards the end of Ramadan, standing on the pulpit (in the masjid) of al-Basrah. He said: “Bring forth the sadaqah relating to your fast.” The people, as it were, could not understand. “Which of the people of Medina are present here? Stand for your brethren, and teach them, for they do not know” said Hadrat ibn ‘Abbas. He further added: “The Messenger of Allah prescribed this sadaqah as one sa' of dried dates or barley, or half a sa' of wheat payable by every freeman or slave, male or female, young or old.” When Hadrat Ali came (to Basrah), he found that the price had come down. He said: “Allah has given prosperity to you, so give one sa' of everything (as sadaqah).” [Sunan Abi Dawood - Book on Zakah, Volume 1, page 229]
III. Hadrat ‘Abdullah ibn Tha’laba or Tha’laba ibn ‘Abdullah (narrator cannot recall exactly what the name was) ibn Abu Saghir, who narrates from his father that the Messenger of Allah said, “One sa' of wheat is enough from every two; young or old; freeman or slave; male or female. Those of you who are rich will be purified by Allah, and those of you who are poor will have more than they gave returned by Him to them.” [Sunan Abi Dawood - Book on Zakah, Volume 1, Page 228]
IV. Hadrat ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah prescribed Sadqatul Fitr, so that the fasts (kept throughout the month of Ramadan) may be purified from any falsehood, wrongdoing or evil talk, and (at the same time) it shall assist to feed the poor and the needy. [Sunan Abi Dawood - Book on Zakah, Volume 1, Page 227]
V. Hadrat ‘Amr ibn Shu’aib reports from his father, who reports from his grandfather that the Holy Prophet sent a person that he calls out loud in the streets of Makkah al-Mukarramah that Sadaqat ul Fitr is Wajib (necessary) upon every muslim male or female; freeman or a slave; young or old. [Sunan Tirmidhi - Book on Zakah, Volume 1, Page 146]
1. Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Wajib upon such a person who owns assets, which equal the value of the Nisab. Such individuals should give Sadaqa-e-Fitr on their behalf and on behalf of their children, if they do not own assets equal to the value of Nisab. Yes, however, if the children do own assets which are equal to or more than the Nisab limit, then the Sadaqa-e-Fitr shall be given from their own wealth. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shari’at]
2. The owner of Nisab in the ruling as regards Sadaqa-e-Fitr is such a person who has 7 ½ Tola gold (93 grammes 312 milligrammes,) or 52 ½ Tola silver (653 grammes 184 milligrammes), or their equivalent value in money or any other form of asset. Or, one owns business or non-business stock equivalent to that value, and these goods are additional to the basic necessities of living (Hajat-e-Asliyyah).
3. For the Sadaqa-e-Fitr to become Wajib it is not necessary that one has fasted. Therefore, if anyone did not fast due to any excuse valid in the eyes of the Islamic Law; such as one is a musafir (travelling to a destination which is at a distance of approximately 57 ½ miles or 92 kilometres), or is ill such that his illness shall become worse if he fasts, or because of weakness caused by old age, or – Allah forbid! – one did not keep the fasts due to any non-valid reason, then the Sadaqa-e-Fitr is still Wajib upon the person. [Radd al-Muhtar – Vol. 2 Page 76 and Bahar-e-Shari’at]
4. If the father is so poor (that he cannot give his own Sadaqa-e-Fitr let alone on behalf of his children,) or has passed away, then it is Wajib on the grandfather to give Sadaqa-e-Fitr on behalf of his grandchildren. [al-Durr al-Mukhtar]
5. If one wants to give anything besides wheat, barley, dates or raisins; for example, rice, millet or any other linseed, then the price of 1 sa’ of wheat or ½ sa’ of barley should be taken into consideration.
6. In terms of weight, one Sa’ is four pounds, six and a half ounces (4lb 6.5 oz) and half a Sa’ is two pounds, three and a quarter ounces (2lb 3.25 oz).
7. It is Mustahab (act of great reward) to give the Sadaqa-e-Fitr on the morning of Eid day (after the beginning time for Fajr), before going to the Eidgah to perform the Eid prayer. [Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri – Vol. 1, Page 180]
8. It is permissible to give Sadaqa-e-Fitr prior to the month of Ramadan or in Ramadan before the day of Eid. [Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri – Vol. 1 Page 179 and al-Durr al-Mukhtar]
Anwaar al-Hadith, Page 146 to 148
by Hadrat Allama Mufti Jalal al-Din Qadiri al-Amjadi