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Janaza - Funeral

Illness is a blessing

Illness is also a great gift and there are many benefits from it although by looking at it may seem as if it is giving you difficulty, but in reality it is a source of rest and easiness and the illness that is of the body is actually a great source of medicine for the recovery of the soul.


What is real illness ?

The real illness is the illness of the soul and is something that should be feared and should be seen as a fatal illness. What should really happen is that a person should think of the illness or difficulty as a gift and accept it gladly, if not then at least have patience and understanding and hence by being impatient and complaining why lose the reward that has come your way and by being impatient the illness is not going to disappear but you will lose the reward and gain another problem and many people who are naive use wrong phrases and obtain sin and some in fact even say words of Kufr by blaming Allah of being cruel (may Allah protect us from this). These people destroy their world and afterlife due to these sorts of statement.

Sins are forgiven and reward is given for illness and difficulties

The Holy Prophet SallallahoAlaihiWasallam has stated that the difficulty that a Muslim suffers upto the extent that a thorn pricks them, then Allah Ta'ala forgives his sin [Bukhari, Muslim] and the Holy Prophet also states that if a Muslim is taken ill due to illness or suffers any other sort of difficulty then Allah drops his sins like a tree drops it's leaves [Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim], and the Holy Prophet also states that Allah has set a grade for a Muslim and if they do not reach that grade due to poor actions then Allah tests them by either their health, goods or children and then gives them patience and then makes them reach their intended grade [Ahmad, Abu Da'wood] and he also states that on the day of judgement when Allah rewards themfor their patience the people who had rested and relaxed in this world will wish that only if scissors would have cut their skins and given them that sort of difficulty so that they could be collecting the reward [Tirmizi].


Visiting people who are sick

To visit someone and enquire about their health is Sunnat. It is quoted in the Hadiths that there is a lot of virtuousness in this and the Holy Prophet has stated that when one Muslim goes and visits his other Muslim brother and because he is ill then until his return he has been gathering the flowers from Jannat [Bukhari, Muslim]. It was the Holy habit of the beloved Prophet that when he visited someone he used to say "Laa Baasa Tahurun Insha Allaho Ta'ala" meaning 'there is nothing to worry about, Insha Allaho Ta'ala this illness will purify you from your sins' [Bukhari, Muslim]. The Holy Prophet says that whenever you go to see an ill person ask them to pray for you because their prayer is the same as the prayers of the angels [Ibne Maja] and he has also stated that when one Muslim goes to visit another ill Muslim then they should pray this Dua seven times "As alullahu Azueem Rabbal Arshil Kareem Ayyashfeeka" if death doesn't come then you will get better.

  • Rule: If you are aware that if you go to see someone about their health and the patient will not like it then do not go [Durrar].
  • Rule: If you went to visit someone and you saw that their situation was bad then do not show this in front of the patient nor shake your head so that the patient will know that their health has deteriorated, but talk to the patient about things that would enlighten them and make them feel better and do not put your hand on their forehead unless that is their request [Durrar].
  • Rule: To go and visit a Fasiq (wrongdoer) is also allowed because visiting is a right of Islam and a Fasiq is still a Muslim. If a Christian or Jew is a Zimmi (citizen of an Islamic country) then it is allowed to go and visit them [Durrar]. There is disagreement between Ulema as to whether one can visit fire worshippers if they are Zimmi. A Hindu comes under the same ruling as a fire worshipper and is different to the ruling of those who are followers of the book (Christians, Jews). There are no Zimmis who are Hindu, Christian, Jews, idol worshippers in the subcontinent of India [Bahar-e-Shariat].
     

The coming of death

One day we will leave this world and death is going to come and we are going to go from here and hence we should prepare for the afterlife where we are going to stay forever and this time should always be remembered and not forgotten.


How should one live here ?

The Holy Prophet has stated that live in this world like a traveller who is on a journey, meaning he lives like a stranger and he doesn't waste time on different routes because he knows he will be wasting time and will not reach his desired destination. In the same way a Muslim should not get stuck in the worldly affairs nor should they get involved with such connections which will divert them from the real destination and objective and should always remember their death as this reminds them of not getting too involved with worldly affairs.


When can one ask for death ?

It is quoted in the Hadith Sharif "Aksiru Zikr Hazihimil Lazzatil Maut", meaning think about a very difficult death but don't ask for death as this is forbidden and if you must ask for it then say 'Oh Allah, keep me alive until life is good for me and give me death when that is the better for me [Bukhari, Muslim] and a Muslim should always have a pious thought in relation to Allah and always remain optimistic for his mercy. It is quoted in the Hadith that no-one dies except with the thought they have had, because Allah has said "Anaa Inda Zanni Abdibi" I treat my servant with the thought they have for me. The Holy Prophet once went to a young person who was close to death and the Holy Prophet said 'How do you see yourself? The young man replied " Oh messenger of Allah, I am optimistic of Allah and scared of my sins" The Holy Prophet replied "Those who have both in their heart i.e. optimism and fear then Allah will give him both, meaning fulfil his optimism and take care of his fear". It is a very tough time when the soul is being extracted, all the actions are dependant on this time and above all faith is in danger because Satan is in desperate attempt to take your faith and whoever Allah protects from his deceit and protects their faith is the one who has reached their desired destination. The Holy Prophet has said that who's last submission is "La ilaha illallah" meaning the first Kalima will go into Jannat.


When death draws nearer

  • Rule: When death is near for a person and you have seen some of the signs then it is Sunnat to lay the person on their right side and face them towards the Qibla. It is also allowed to keep the person flat and point his feet towards Qibla and tuck his head slightly up so that he will face the Qibla and if this is not possible as it would cause the ill person difficulty then leave them as they are [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].


Praying the Kalima

  • Rule: At the time of near death when the soul has not yet departed then pray this loudly "Ash Hadu An La ilaha illallahu Wa Ash hadu Anna Muhammadan Rasoolullah", however, do not instruct the ill to pray [Alamgiri, Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: Once the ill has prayed the Kalima then stop praying it loudly, however, if they say something else then start praying the Kalima again because their last words should be "La ilaha illallahu Muhammadur Rasoolullah" [Alamgiri, Johra].
  • Rule: The person praying the Kalima who is close to the ill should be a pious person, not a person who will be happy at the death of the person and therefore to have pious people around at the time is a very good thing and at this time to have 'Surah Yasin' being prayed and sweet smelling perfume is Mustahhab, such as Luban or Incense sticks etc. [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: At the time of death a woman on her menstrual cycle or after-birth bleeding can be present [Qazi Khan, Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri]. However, if a woman has finished her period or a person for whom it is obligatory to bathe should bathe first and should not be present otherwise. Also you should make sure that their are no photographs or dogs in the house and if there are then throw them out immediately because where there are photographs or dogs then the angels of mercy do not enter. At the end time pray for the dying as much as you can and for yourself and do not say anything bad from your tongue because this is the time where angels say Ameen to your prayers, when you see that the ill person is in extreme difficulty pray 'Surah Yasin' or 'Surah Ra'ad' [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If at the dying time (Allah forgive) a phrase of Kufr is said then a Fatawa of Kufr is not be given because maybe due to the difficulty, they are not in their senses and have said it unconsciously [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri] and it is also a strong possibility that you may not have understood their words fully as they may miss bits out as they may be in the difficulty of death [Bahar-e-Shariat].
     

What should be done when the soul is extracted

  • Rule: When the soul has come out then get a wide strip of cloth and take it underneath the jaw and over the head and tie it so that the mouth does not stay open and also close the eyes and straighten the hands and feet, this action should be done by the one in the house who can do it most carefully, either father or son [Alamgiri, Johra etc.].
     

Dua when closing the eyes

  • Rule: When closing the eyes of the deceased, you should pray this Dua "Bismillahi Wa Ala Millati Rasoolillah Allahumma Yassir Alaihi Amrahu Wa Sahhil Alaihi Ma Ba'dahu Wa'as'id'hu Bili Kaa'ika Waj'al Maa Kharaja ilaihi Khairam Minima Kharaja Anhu" [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: Put something heavy on the deceased stomach such as metal or soil to prevent it from blowing up [Alamgiri] however, ensure it is not heavier than necessary so that it may cause inconvenience [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: Wrap a cloth around the whole body and then lift it onto something with four legs so that the body is not stuck to the floor [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: You should ensure that the bathing, Kafan and burial is done quickly because there has been strong emphasis on this in the Hadith Sharif [Johra, Fatahul Qadir].
     

The dead person's debts

  • Rule: If the deceased has any debt or anything owing then it should be cleared as soon as possible because it is quoted in the Hadith that the deceased is worried about their debt and in one narration it is stated that the soul remains stuck until the debt is cleared.
  • Rule: If a woman has died and a child is moving in her stomach then the stomach should be cut from the left side and the child taken out.
  • Rule: A woman is alive and her child in her stomach has died and it is going to be fatal for the mother then the stomach should be cut and the child taken out, however, if the child is also alive then regardless of the difficulty the stomach should not be cut [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

 

Method of bathing the deceased

Bathing the deceased is Farz-e-Kifaya and that is if some people gave the body a bath then all are no longer responsible [Alamgiri]. The method of bathing is that first of all where the body is going to be bathed i.e. table, stool or four legged furniture should be made sweet smelling by walking around it three, five or seven times with incense or nice smelling smoke and then lay the body on the furniture and cover the naval to the knees with a cloth. Then the person washing the body should wrap some material around his hands and first of all wash the body's private parts. Then he should perform Wuzu on the body as in Namaz and that is wash the face, then the hands upto the elbows then perform a Masah of the head and wash the body's feet. Do not first wash the hands upto the wrists or wash the inside of the mouth or the nostrils as this is not necessary when washing the deceased. However, get some cotton or a small piece of cloth and wet it and then wipe the teeth and gums and lips with it. Then if the deceased has hair or a beard then wash them with a sweet smelling flower called 'Gull Khairo' and if this is not available then wash it with clean soap which is made from Halal products and if this is not available then just with water. Then turn the body on it's right side and wash the side with water from 'Beri' leaves and then repeat the process on the left side and if this sort of water is not available then clean warm water is sufficient. Then sit the body upright and gently wash the lower part of the stomach and if something is excreted then wash it away but do not perform Wuzu or bath again, then finally wash the whole body with Kafoor water and then slowly slowly wipe the body with a dry piece of cloth.

  • Rule: It is obligatory to flow the water over the body once and it is Sunnat to flow it three times. Wherever you are performing the bathing, it is Mustahhab to section the part so that except for the one bathing the body and his helpers no other person can see. Whilst bathing then lay the body as per laving it in it's grave i.e. facing the Qibla and if this is difficult then lay it whichever way is easiest [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: A male should be bathed by a male and a female should be bathed by a female, if the dead is a small boy then women can bathe him and if the dead is a small girl then men can bathe her as long as their age is not of adolescence (approx. twelve years for boys and nine for girls) [Alamgiri, Bshar].
  • Rule: If a wife dies then her husband cannot bathe her nor touch her but there is no harm in looking at her [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: A husband can lift the coffin of his wife and he can lower her into the grave and he can see her face but he cannot touch her body or bathe her as this is forbidden [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If a man dies and there are no males present nor'his wife then the woman present should perform Tayammum for the deceased and if the woman is a permissible female (Mahram) or his slave then they can perform Tayammum without wrapping their hands in material and if they are strangers then she must wrap her hands in material before performing Tayammum [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If a person dies where there is no water available then perform Tayammum and pray Namaz-e-Janaza and if water becomes available before burying the body then bathe the body and pray the Namaz of Janaza again [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
     

Order for a dead Infidel

  • Rule: There is no bathing or Kafan (shroud) for an infidel but wrap it in a large piece of cloth and bury it in a hole and only do this if there is no-one of their religion present, otherwise do not take the body nor should a Muslim touch it nor go to it's funeral [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Keep both hands of the deceased to their side as to put them on the chest is the method if infidels [Durr-e-Mukhtar], and on some occasions people put the hands below the navel like in Namaz and this is also not correct [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: For the bathing of the body new empty containers are not necessary but normal household utensils are sufficient and in some houses people then destroy the utensils after bathing the body, this is also not allowed and Haram as it is wasting money and should either be given to the poor or used again by yourself. If they have become impure then wash them clean and if you think that it is impure to keep them in the home then this is also illiteracy and stupidity. Some people throw away the water remaining in the utensil, this is also Haram [Bahar-e-Shariat].

Three grades of Kafan (Shroud)
To give the deceased a shroud (Kafan) is Farz-e-Kifaya [Fatahul Qadir]. There are three grades of a Kafan,

  1. Necessity
  2. Sufficient
  3. Sunnat

For a male it is Sunnat to have three pieces, cover, top and bottom. For females the Sunnat is five pieces, cover, top, bottom, veil and chest-piece.


What is the Sunnat Kafan

The sufficient Kafan for males is two pieces of cloth, the cover and bottom piece. The sufficient Kafan for females are three pieces of cloth, the cover, bottom piece and the veil or the cover, top piece and veil. The necessary Kafan (Farz) is a piece of cloth for both males and females whichever covers the entire body [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].

  • Rule: The cover should be bigger than the height of the body so that it can be tied at both ends. The Bottom should be so long that it covers from the hair to the feet, meaning only the extra bits that are used on the cover to tie at both ends are longer than the bottom. The top is to cover from the throat to below the knees and is the same back and front. The tradition used in illiterate people is that the back is shorter than the front, this is wrong. The top does not have sleeves or the open collar (used for buttons). The difference between the top of males and females is that the male top is ripped at the collars and the females is ripped at the chest part. The veil is to be three arms length in size meaning one and half yards. The chest part for women is from the breasts to below the naval and it is better to have it upto the thighs [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: Without cause having the Kafan less than sufficient is Makrooh and not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    When can one beg for a Kafan
  • Rule: If there is the Kafan that is necessary available then it is not allowed to beg for more, because without necessity begging is not allowed. However, if there is not even the necessary amount of Kafan available then you can beg for the amount to fulfil the necessary required not more, and if a Muslim fulfils the necessary amount without the need to beg then Insha Allah the reward for full Kafan will be obtained [Fatawa-e-Razvia].


Material for the Kafan

  • Rule: The quality of the Kafan should be good meaning the same quality as the clothing the male wore on Fridays, Eid days and special days and the female wore when she went to visit her parent's home. It is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that give the dead good Kafan because they meet other dead people and they obtain happiness by looking at their good quality Kafan. It is better to have the Kafan white in colour because the Holy Prophet has stated that wrap your dead in white Kafan [Alamgiri, Guniya, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: To have saffron or silk material Kafan is not allowed for males and is allowed for females, meaning, whatever they were allowed to wear in their lifetime, then that material is allowed and whatever was forbidden to wear in the lifetime is also forbidden to be used as Kafan [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is allowed to use Kafan from used material [Alamgiri, Johra].
     

Kafan for Children

For a girl the age of nine and over, a full woman's Kafan will be given, and for a boy the age of twelve and over a full Kafan of a man will be given. For a girl the age of less than nine then the Kafan of two pieces can be given and for a boy the age of less than twelve a Kafan of one piece can be given but it is better to give two pieces and it is actually best if the full Kafan is given for both even if the child is one day's old [Qazi Khan, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

From who's property should the Kafan be?

  • Rule: If the deceased has left some property then the Kafan should be bought from this [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Debt, will, inheritance etc. are all superseded by the Kafan, meaning first the Kafan will be bought then the debts etc. will be fulfilled. Then whatever is left a third will be used to fulfil the will and then the remainder will be given to inheriting relatives [Johra].
  • Rule: If the deceased has not left any property then whoever is responsible for the deceased and was responsible for the deceased during their life will provide the Kafan and there is no-one available like this then the Kafan will be given from Bait-ul-Maal (deposit of funds used for Muslims). If there is no funds for Bait-ul-Maal then it is the responsibility of the Muslims there to give the Kafan and if they didn't then they would all be sinners. If the Muslims do not have the material then they can beg for one piece of material for the deceased [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Johra].
  • Rule: If a woman died and left some property but still the responsibility of the Kafan is on her husband. The only condition is that no such thing was said before dying which would take the responsibility away from the husband. If the husband died and the woman had some of her own property she would still not be responsible for her husband's Kafan [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: When it is referred that the Kafan is Wajib on such a person, this means Kafan as per Shariat. In the same way the rest of the goods such as perfume, bathing, taking the body to the burial place is all as per Shariat. As for the rest of the goods then if all the relatives gave the person in charge the permission then it is allowed otherwise the onus is on the person who wants to spend the money [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].


Method of putting the Kafan on

The method is first bathe the body then dry it gently with a cloth so that the Kafan does not get wet. Then incense the Kafan once, three, five or seven times but no more than seven. Then lay the Kafan as follows, first the big sheet (cover) then the bottom the top and then lay the body on top of this and put the top on properly then put perfume on the body and the beard and then put Kafoor on the head, nose, hands, knees and feet. Then wrap the bottom round first left then right side then wrap the cover round, first left side then the right side so that the right side remains on top and then tie from the top and the bottom so that it would not blow open. For a woman, put on the top then part her hair into two and put them over the top on the chest. Then lay the veil from half way down the back and bring it over the head and cover the face like a Naqab and the end is on the chest, so it's length is from the half way down the back to the chest and the width is from one earlobe to the earlobe. Some people put the veil on like they wear it on a day to day basis and this wrong and against the Sunnat. Then wrap the bottom of the cover then on top of it all wrap the chest cover from the breast to the thighs and tie it [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].


Method of taking the Janaza (coffin)

  • Rule: To lift the Janaza on the shoulder is a form of worship and every person should attempt to perform this worship. The Holy Prophet lifted the Janaza of 'Sa'ad Bin Ma'az' Radi Allahu Anho's Janaza [Johra, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is Sunnat to lift each side one by one and then walk ten steps at a time. The proper Sunnat is to first lift the right top side then the right bottom side then the left top side and the left bottom side and then walk ten steps, which means that the total amount of steps taken is forty steps. It is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that those who take the Janaza for forty steps will have forty of their large sins forgiven and those who lift all four sides of the Janaza will definitely be forgiven [Johra, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: When lifting the Janaza, lift it with the hands and place the sides on your shoulders. To put the sides on your neck or back is Makrooh, whichever side you misplace will remain Makrooh.
  • Rule: For a small child, if one person walks alone then there is no harm and people should transfer the body one by one.
  • Rule: The Janaza should be taken quickly but not so that it would jerk the Janaza [Mujma'ul Anhaar, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Qazi Khan, Hidaya, Waqiya, Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Those who walk with the Janaza should walk behind it. You should not walk on the right or left side. If someone is walking in front then they should stay that far so that they would not be counted in the group that are walking with the Janaza, and if all the people are in front then this is Makrooh [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is better to walk with the Janaza on foot and if you are on an animal or in a vehicle then to be in front is Makrooh, otherwise remain a distance ahead [Alamgiri, Sagiri].
  •  Rule: It is forbidden to take fire with the Janaza [Alamgiri, Hijr].
     

Reward for going to the Janaza

  • Rule: If the deceased is a neighbour or a relative or a pious person then to go to their Janaza is better than praying a Nafl [Alamgiri, Hijr].
  • Rule: Those who are with the Janaza should not return home before praying the Namaz and after the Namaz he can return after gaining consent from the friends of the deceased and it is not necessary to gain consent to leave after the burial has taken place [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: It is forbidden to talk about worldly affairs or laugh when walking with the Janaza [Durr-e-Mukhtar].


NAMAZ OF JANAZA

The Namaz of Janaza is Farz-e-Kifaya, meaning even if one person prayed it then all would be relieved of the responsibility and if no-one prays it then those who are aware of it will have committed a sin, those who reject the Namaz as Farz is a Kafir.

  • Rule: Jamaat is not a condition for this Namaz and if therefore if one person prayed it the Farz will be fulfilled [Alamgiri]. The method of praying the Namaz is first of all to make the intention (I make the intention to pray Namaz for Allah and to perform Dua for this dead person), After making the Niyyat lift the hands upto the ears and whilst saying Allaho Akbar fold then below the navel. Then pray Sana, meaning; "Subhanakallah Humma Wabihamdika Watabarakasmuka Wa Ta'ala Jadduka Wa Jalla Thana'uka Wa La illaha Ghairuk". Then without lifting the hands say Allaho Akbar and pray the Durood Sharif, it is better to pray the Durood that is prayed in Namaz (Durood-e-lbrahim) and if another Durood is prayed then there is no harm. Then say Allaho Akbar and pray the following Dua for yourself and for the deceased and for all Muslim men and women "Allahummagh Fir Lihayyina Wa Mayyatina Wa Shaahidina Wa Gha'ibina Wa Sagirina Wa Kabirina Wa Zakarina Wa Unthana Allahuma man Ahyaytahu Minna Fa'ahyihi Alal Islam Wa Man Tawaffaytahu Minna Fatawaffahu Alal Imaan. Then say Allaho Akbar and then perform Salaam.
  • Rule: If someone does not remember this Dua then any other Dua-e-Masoor will also do such as "Allahumgh Firli Wa Li Walidayya Wa Lil Mu'mineena Wal Mu'minaati Wal Muslimeena Wal Muslimaati Al Ahya'i Minhum Wal Amwaat Innaka Mujibbud Da'wat Birahmatika Ya Arharrahimin.
  • Rule: Out of all the four Takbeers of Namaz-e-Janaza, only lift your hands on the first Takbeer and not for the other three. At the fourth Takbeer, without praying anything else perform salaam and release your hands.
  • Rule: If the deceased was either insane or a male child then after the third Takbeer, pray this Dua"AllahumajAlhooLanaFarataw Waj'alhoolanaAjraw Wa ZukhrawWajAlhoolana Shafi'aw Wamushaffa'a" and if it a girl then replace the words "Alhoolana" with"Alhalana" and "Shafi'aw Wamushaffa'a" with"Shafi'ataw Wamushaffa'ah". Insane in the above text means that he/she became insane before becoming an adult [Guniya,Bahar].
  • Rule: In the Salaam ensure that the intention is for the deceased, the angels and the present [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: The Takbeer and Salaam should be prayed by the Imam loudly, and the rest quietly.
  • Rule: There are two Farz in Namaz-e-Janaza;

    • Qayam - Standing

    • All four Takbeers

  • There are three Sunnat-e-Maukidas in Namaz-e-Janaza which are;

    • To praise Allah

    • To pray the Durood

    • To pray for the deceased.

  • Rule: Because to stand is obligatory then if the Namaz is prayed without real reason seated or on a vehicle or animal then it won't count and if the friend and person in charge is ill or the Imam is ill and prayed the Namaz seated and the Muqtadees prayed it stood up then the Namaz will count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Those who have missed some of the Takbeers should pray them after the Imam performs Salaam and if they are worried that if they remain to pray the Duas, people will take the body on their shoulders then they should just pray the Takbeers and miss the Duas [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If a person comes after the fourth Takbeer has been said but the Imam has not performed Salaam then they should join in and when the Imam performs Salaam he should say 'Allaho Akbar' three times after [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: Every act that breaks the Namaz also breaks the Namaz of Janaza except one thing and that is if women and men touch each other the Namaz of Janaza does not break [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: The same conditions which are for normal Namaz are also for the Namaz of Janaza, meaning:
    • Cleanliness of the body.
    • Cleanliness of the clothes
    • Cleanliness of the place
    • Covering of the body
    • Facing the Qibla
    • Intention - although there is no fixed time for this and the Takbeer-e-Tahrima is a part of it not a separate condition. [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

The condition for the deceased is that it is bathed and a Kafan is put on the body and if the bathing is not possible then to perform Tayammum on it and the Kafan is clean even though it may get dirty later and the body is put in front on the floor because if it is put on something or ar, animal then the Namaz will not count.


Whose Janaza Namaz. should not be prayed

  • Rule: The Namaz of Janaza should be prayed for all Muslims regardless of whether they are grave sinners. There are however, a few exceptions to this and these are ; A traitor who fights against a correct Imam and dies fighting against the Imam. A robber who dies whilst raiding someone, then he should not be given a bath nor should his Namaz of Janaza be prayed. Those who have killed a few people by strangling them. Finally a person who has killed his or her parents, then their Namaz of Janaza should not be prayed [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: The first right for being the Imam of A Janaza Namaz is for the Sultan of Islam, then the judge (Qazi), then the Imam who leads the Juma prayer, then the Imam of the local Masjid, then the close relative or friend of the deceased (Wali). The right of the Imam of the local Masjid over the Wali of the deceased is Mustahhab and this applies when the Imam is more pious than the Wali, otherwise the Wali holds the right. [Guniya, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: Wali means the deceased person's relatives and when leading the Namaz the routine is the same for the relatives as with Nikkah, except for the only difference is that in Nikkah the son has first right over father for being a Wali and in Janaza the father has right over the son, except in the case where the son is a scholar (Alim) and the father is not, in which case the son would have the first right. If there are no relatives then the pious people of the non relatives have the right [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If the close relative who is the Wali is not available and a distance relative is available then the distant relative will perform the Namaz. Not available means that they are so far away that it would be difficult to wait for them [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If there are no relatives of a woman then the husband should pray the Namaz and if he is not available then a neighbour, in the same way if there are no relatives for a male then the neighbours hold the right [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: There is no necessity to gain final permission for the Janaza of a female or child.


Rows for Namaz-e-Janaza

  • Rule: It is better that there are three rows for Namaz-e-Janaza as it is quoted in the Hadith that if there are three rows for a person's Janaza Namaz then they will be forgiven. If there are only seven men, then one should be the Imam, three stand in the first row, two in the second row and one in the third row [Guniya, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is Mustahhab that the Imam stands near to the deceased's chest and not far away.


Namaz of Janaza is not allowed inside the Masjid

  • Rule: To pray the Namaz-e-Janaza inside the Masjid is totally Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, whether the body is inside the Masjid or outside, whether all the Namazees are inside the Masjid or some [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If a person died on the day of Juma and it is possible to complete everything before the Juma Namaz then this should be done, to delay it after the Juma Namaz with the thought that more people will be able to attend is Makrooh [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If the body has been buried and covered with soil without praying the Namaz then the Namaz should be prayed on the grave as long as you are aware that the grave has split and if the body has been buried but not yet covered with soil, then the body should be lifted out and the Namaz prayed and then buried again [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
     

Dead child's burial and Kafan

  • Rule: If a Muslim person's child is born alive and then dies, then it should be bathed, a Kafan put on and Namaz-e-Janaza prayed, then buried. If the child is born dead then, wash it and wrap it in a clean cloth and bury it, there is no Namaz nor is the bathing or covering done in the Sunnat method.
  • Rule: If a child is born with the head first and was alive until the chest appeared then it dies, it will be regarded as born alive and then died. If a child is born breach or legs first and then is alive until the waist comes out and then dies, then it will be regarded as born alive and then died. If it dies before coming this far out then it will be regarded as.dead even if it's voice was heard [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If a child is born alive or dead, whether it was fully formed or half formed, it should be given a name and on the day of judgement it will be accounted for [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If a Muslim's child is delivered by an infidel woman and she was not his wife, meaning it was an illegitimate child then it's Namaz of Janaza should still be prayed [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: It is Farz-e-Kifaya to bury the body.


Size of the grave

  • Rule: The length of the grave should be at least the body's length in size and the width should be at least the half size of the length and the depth should be at least half the size of the length and preferably the depth should be the full size of the length otherwise the middle answer is to have the depth upto the chest [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. The depth means that the coffin or the inner grave is this deep not fror-i ground level.


Grave or Coffin

  • Rule: There are two types of graves. The first is called 'Lahad' and this is a side pocket grave facing Qibla and the grave is dug with this pocket grave and the dead is placed in the pocket grave. The second is the standard coffin style grave and the body is lowered into the grave flat. The Lahad style is Sunnat but if it is not possible then there is no harm using the coffin style [Alamgiri, Bahar, Qazi Khan, Johra etc.]. The part of the grave where the body of the deceased is touching the grave, to have proper brick built is Makrooh [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: To spread a table type cloth etc. at the bottom of the grave is not allowed as this is unnecessary use of goods [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: The people who go into the grave to lower the body whether it be three or four or as many required should be pious and of good character, because if they see something that is not worthy of mentioning it should not be mentioned and if they see something as is worth praising then it should be talked about [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: It is Mustahhab to put the body into the grave from the Qibia side not so that it is lowered from the feet end then brought towards the Qibia [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Fatahul Qadir].


Who should lower the body of a female?

  • Rule: The people lowering a female body should be her Mahrum (from whom a Pardah is not necessary) and if they are not available then other close relatives and if this is not possible then pious Muslims can lower the body [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: When placing the body into the grave pray this Dua "Bismillahi Wa Billahi Wa Alaa Millati Rasoolillah"[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alarngiri].
     

The deceased's side and face

  • Rule: Lay the deceased on their right side and point their face towards the Qibla. If you forget to point their face towards the Qibla but remember after the coffin is closed then re-open the coffin and point their face towards the Qibla, and if you forgot and the soil is filled and the grave is closed then do not re-open the grave to point the face towards the Qibla, in the same way if the body is laid on the left side or the feet are where the head should be, then if you remember before the soil is put back on the grave then change it to the correct position otherwise leave it [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: After placing the body in the grave then you can release the tightening of the Kafan as it is no longer necessary and if you do not then there is no harm [Johra, Bahar].
  • Rule: After placing the body in the grave then replace the grave with raw soil and if the soil is soft then you can use planks of wood to support it as pillars, and if there is a gap between the pillars then fill it with soil and the same rule applies to a coffin [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If the Janaza is of a woman then until it is lowered into the grave and the planks of wood are put across then keep the grave area partitioned with a cover. Do not cover a male's grave however, if there is a problem with the deceased face etc. then there is no harm in covering it. For a female ensure that the area is covered [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].


When soil is given and how and what should be prayed

  • Rule: Once the planks of wood are put across the grave then start putting the soil back on. It should be started from the head side and picked up with both hands and dropped three times. When dropping it the first time pray "Min'ha Khalaqnaa'kum" then at the second throw pray "Wa feeha Nu'eedukum" and on the third throw pray "Wa Min'ha Nukhrijukum Taa'ratan Ukhra". The rest of the soil should be put on the grave using a shovel or spade etc. and to put more soil in the grave than what came out is Makrooh [Alamgin, Johra].
  • Rule: The soil that is stuck to the hand can either be shaken off or washed off, whatever is preferable [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: The grave should not be made completely square but there should be a dip in it like the humps of a camel. There is no harm in sprinkling water on the grave but in fact it is better to do so and the grave should be one span tall or slightly higher [Alamgin, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If a person dies on a ship and land is not near then they should be bathed and a Kafan put on and lowered into the sea [Guniya, Radd-ul-Mohtar].


To make domes or pillars on a grave and to make it solid

  • Rule: To make a dome or pillars etc. on top of a grave of Ulema or Saadaat then there is no harm, but it should not be made solid [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar] meaning it must not be made solid from the inside , and if it is raw soil on the inside of the grave and made with brick on the outside then there is no harm [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If it is necessary then you can write on the grave to mark it, but do not write where the wording may be open to disrespect [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: It is better to bury someone in a cemetery where there are graves of the pious people.
  • Rule: It is Mustahhab to pray after burial the start and the end of Surah Baqr, the starting is from 'Alif Laam Meem to Muflihoon', and the end half is from 'Aamanarrassoluh to the end of the Surat' [Johra, Bahar-e-Shariat].


Respect of the Grave

  • Rule: To sit, sleep, walk, excrete and urinate on a grave is Haram. You should walk where there has been a new pathway allocated, whether you are aware that the pathway is new or you just think that is the case [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If you wish to reach a relative's grave but to get there you will have to walk on other graves then this is forbidden and therefore pray the Fatiha from a distance. You should not wear shoes inside the graveyard, because once the Holy Prophet saw a person wearing shoes he said "take you shoes off, do not make it difficult for the buried and they will not make it difficult for you" [Bahar-e-Shariat].


Time and day of Ziyarat (remembrance and visiting)

To go and visit the graves is Sunnat. You should go once a week, either on Friday, Thursday, Saturday or Monday is all valid. The best time is in the morning on a Friday. It is allowed to go and travel to the graves of the Aulia-e-Kiram and the Aulia provide benefit for those who do this. If you see something there which is against the Shariat such as facing women or hearing music then do no not stop going, but think of it as bad and try and avoid it because to stop a pious act because of seeing bad things is not correct [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

  • Rule: It is a wise thing that women should be stopped from going visit the graves [Radd-ul-Mohtar,Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar].
     

Method of visiting the graves

The method is to enter from the feet side of the buried and stand facing them and say this "Assalaamu Alaikum, Ya Ahia Daar'e Quamin Mu'mineena Antum Lanaa Salfuw Wa Insha Allanu Bikum Lahiqoon Nas'alullaha Lana Walakumul Afwa'Wal Aafiyata Yarahamullahul Mustaqdimeena Minna Wal Musta'akhireena Allahumma Rabbul Arwaahil Faaniyah Wal Ajsaadil Baaliyah Wal Izaamin Nakhira ad Khil Haazihil Quboora Minka Raw'haw Wa Reehanaw Wa Minna Tahyataw Wasalaama". Then pray the Fatiha and if you wish to sit then sit at the same distance when you sat near him when he was alive [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

  • Rule: Do not approach the grave from the head side of the buried as it will cause the dead pain, meaning that they will have to turn their head to look at you [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]


Sending Sawab (Reward) to the deceased

  • Rule: When visiting the graveyard pray 'Alhamdo Sharif and Alif Laam Meem upto Muflihoon and AyatuI Kursi and Amanarrasooluh to the end of the Surat. Also pray Surah Yaseen and Tabarakal Lazi and Alhakurnttakassu once each and pray QuI Huwallaho Ahad either twelve, eleven, seven or three times and then send all the reward to the dead. It is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that those who pray QuI Huwallaho Ahad eleven times and then send the reward to the dead, then he who sends it will gain reward equivalent to the amount of dead people [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].


Eesaal-e-Sawab

The reward for praying Namaz, Fasting, Zakat, Hajj, Sadqah (Charity), Lillah and all other pious acts Farz and Nafl can be passed to the dead. The reward would reach all of them and the reward of the sender would not be reduced in the slightest and it is of optimism and wish that with the mercy of Allah every person would receive the same amount of reward and that is all of it and it would not be split or shared and therefore not reduced [Shareh Aq'aid, Hidaya, Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar] and it is hoped that the total amount of reward will be given to the sender, for example, if a person performs a pious act which would carry ten rewards and then he sends that to ten dead people, the dead would all receive ten rewards each and the sender would receive one hundred and ten rewards, and if it was sent to a thousand dead people then the sender would gain one thousand and ten rewards [Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar].

  • Rule: It is forbidden to kiss or perform circles around the grave [Bahar Shariat, Ash'atuI Lam'aat].
  • Rule: It is a good thing to put flowers on the grave because whilst they remain wet they will perform the Tasbeeh of Allah and satisfy the heart of the deceased [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar] and in the same way to put a blanket of flowers on the Janaza, there is no harm [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: Wet grass should not be removed from the grave because the wet grass prays the Tasbeeh of Allah and gives rest to the buried and if it is removed then you have committed unjust for the deceased [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is allowed to put on a Ghilaf (blanket) on the graves of Aulia and Ulema when it is recognised that the person in the shrine is respected by majority and people are aware of the holy person's status and gain auspiciousness from the Holy Person who is resting.


Food For the deceased

  • Rule: If the family of the deceased invite guest for food on the third or the fortieth day then it is a bad Bid'at and is not allowed, because as per Shariat to invite guest for food is done on a happy occasion not on a sad occasion, however if you feed the poor and the needy then it is better [Fatahul Qadir]. Money from the goods of the deceased use to make food for the third day etc. is not allowed, once the goods have been distributed then if someone wishes to contribute then this is all right [Khaniya etc.]. it is a good thing if the neighbours or distant relatives bring food for the family of the deceased day and night and comfort them and make them eat [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: The food that is sent for the family of the deceased should only be eaten by the family and excess food should not be sent, as for others to eat this is not allowed [Bahar-e-Shariat] and to send food for the first day is Sunnat and after this is Makrooh [Alamgiri, Bahar].


Moaning and Wailing for the dead

To scream and wail and perform lamentation about the deceased in a gathering is Haram and the same way to scream and shout the forthcoming difficulties is also Haram [Johra, Nera].

  • Rule: To rip your clothes, rub your face, undo the hair, to beat your head, to beat your chest are all methods of illiteracy and are all Haram [Alamgiri]. It is quoted in the Hadith that those who hit their face or rip their clothes and scream illiterate words are not with me [Bukhari, Muslim]. It is quoted in another Hadith that those who beat their head and scream out and rip their clothes, I am unhappy with them.
  • Rule: It is not permissible to cry with sound but if no sound is heard then there is no harm because to cry like this is proven for the Holy Prophet because at the passing away of his son the Holy Prophet had tears in his eyes and he stated that Allah does not punish for tears from the eyes or sorrow in the heart, however, he punishes due to the sound of the mouth nor does He perform mercy and because of those who cry loudly the deceased feels pain and also cries [Johra, Bahar, Bukhari, Muslim]. Sorrow - It is not permissible to perform sorrow for more than three days, however, the wife at the passing away of her husband performs sorrow for four months and ten days [Bukhari, Muslim].
  • Rule: Those who remain patient during times of difficulty obtain two lots of reward, one for being patient and the other for the difficulty and those who don't remain patient and scream etc. lose both rewards [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. It is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that when a Muslim man or woman are fronted with difficulty then when remembering it pray 'inna lillahi Wa inna ilaihi Raji'oon' even if plenty of time has passed since the difficulty as Allah gives new reward and the reward is the same as that given at the initial time of difficulty.
     

Ta'ziyyat (Comfort and sorrow)

Ta'ziyyat means to pray that Allah forgives the deceased and protects them with His mercy and gives the family strength and patience and reward them for suffering. The Holy Prophet performed Ta'ziyyat in these words 'Lillahi Maa Akhaza Wa Aa'taa Wa Kullu Shay'in indahoo Bi aJalim Musammaa' It belongs to Allah and He has taken it back and everything to Him has it's fixed time" [Alamgiri etc.]

  • Rule: It is Mustahhab to perform Ta'ziyyat to all the relatives of the deceased, small, large, male, female, however, for the females only their Mahrams perform Ta'ziyyat [Alamgiri, Bahar].


SHAHEED - MARTYR IN ISLAM

Martyr's are alive

Allah Ta'ala states 'Wala Taquioo limay.......' meaning, those people who die in the path of Allah do not call them dead, because they are alive but you are not aware, and He also states 'Wala Tahsabannal Lazeena Qutiloo......ila Ajral Mu'mineen' meaning, those people who have died in the path of Allah, do not think of them as dead but they are alive at their Lord's place, they are given wealth and whatever Allah has given to them from His virtue they are happy, and those that they have left behind then there is good news for them and that is they have no fear nor are they worried and the Martyr's wish for Allah's gifts and virtue and that those who give with Imaan (their life) then Allah does not let that go to waste and there are many Hadiths explaining the virtues of the Martyrs.

Shaheed are exempt from bathing and shroud

  • Rule: The Shaheed are not to be given a bath nor is their blood to be washed nor do they have a shroud put on them. In fact they should be kept as they are and the Namaz of Janaza should be prayed and then covered. However, if the clothing that they are wearing is less than the Sunnat requirement then it should be added and made up to the Sunnat requirement but the trousers should not be taken off. If the Martyr is wearing extra to the normal clothing such as a scarf, shoes or a sword holder etc. then these should be taken off [Hidaya etc.].

Conditions for not giving the Shaheed a Bath

  • Rule: For the Shaheed not to be given a bath there are seven conditions which have to be met and if even one is missed then the bath should be given.
    • The Shaheed must be a Muslim
    • The Shaheed must be within their senses (not insane)
    • The Shaheed must be an adult
    • The Shaheed must be clean (pak) i.e. Bathing was not compulsory on them
    • The Shaheed must not have died due to punishment (executed due to Islamic law)
    • The Shaheed must have been killed by a weapon (sword, dagger, gun etc.)
    • The Shaheed must not have been killed by mistake
    • The Shaheed must not have gained any advantage from the world after becoming injured.

It is a great quality and excellence of Shaheed in this world that their blood is regarded as clean their body is regarded as clean and their clothing that they are wearing is regarded as a shroud, and as for the next world their quality and excellence leaves nothing to be desired.

  • Rule: If a thief, robber, warrior or a traitor kills someone then whether it be with a weapon or some other item they are regarded as Shaheed and they should not be bathed [Hidaya, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.]. Gaining advantage from the world means after becoming injured the Shaheed eats something or drank something or slept or was treated for his injuries or stayed in the tent or one whole period of Namaz passed whilst the person was conscious (as long as the person has the power to pray Namaz) or the person got up from the injury ground and moved somewhere else or was taken by others away from the battlefield whether he reached his destination alive or died on the way or gave some instructions about a worldly action or bought something or sold something or talked about a lot of things then in all these situations the bath should be given as long as these happened after the battle and if they happened in between the battle and these things did not stop the killing then a bath is not to be given.
  • Rule: If a Muslim is killed by another Muslim deliberately without justice the deceased is regarded as a Shaheed and should not be given a bath.
  • Rule: If a person was killed whilst protecting their life or property or trying to help another Muslim then they are regarded as a Shaheed (meaning a bath should not be given) whether they have been kitted by a piece of metal, stone or stick [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: To take off all the clothes of a Shaheed and replace them with clean clothes is Makrooh [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Alamgiri].
 
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