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Rules of a Masjid

Close to Allah the best place is the Masjid and the worst is the town centre (shopping areas).

Dua of going into the Masjid

When you enter a Masjid, first pray the Durood Sharif and then pray this Dua 'Rabbigh Firli Zunubi Waftahli Abwaaba Rahmatik' and when coming out of the Masjid first pray the DuroodSharif and then pray this Dua'Rabbigh Firli Zunubi Waftahli Abwaaba Fadlik'

  • Rule: Pointing the soles of your feet towards the Qibla is Makrooh, whether you do it when sleeping or when you are awake. The same rule applies for small children and that it is Makrooh to have their feet pointing towards Qibia and the person who has laid them down will obtain the sin.
  • Rule: It is Haram to cause litter or any other sort of dirtiness on the Masjid's roof, you must respect the roof of the Masjid as you would respect the Masjid itself [Guniya].
  • Rule: To climb on the roof of the Masjid without reason is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: To make the Masjid an access-way, meaning to go through it to get to the other side of the road etc. is not allowed. If you make a habit of this then you will become a wrongdoer (Fasiq). If someone goes in the Masjid with this intention then regrets it he must either come out of a different door than the one he intended to come out from or pray Namaz there and then come out or if he has not performed Wuzu then he can come out of the door he went in from [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ut-Mohtar].
  • Rule: You are not allowed to urinate in a container or obtain blood in the Masjid.
  • Rule: To take a child or a mentally ill person into the Masjid when you are in doubt that they might cause excretion or urinate then it is Haram and if not then it is Makrooh.
  • Rule: To write the Quran on walls of the Masjid or on the Mehrab is not a good thing because there is the possibility that the words might drop off and hence will be abused and for the same reason of disrespect to write the Quran on a pillow, on the ground, on the bed or tablecloth or even on the prayer mat is not allowed [Alamgiri,Bahar].
  • Rule: To perform Wuzu inside the Masjid (JamaatKhana) or to spit, clean your nose or put dirt on the walls of the Masjid or on the carpet or underneath the carpet is forbidden. If you have a need to spit or clean your nose the use a handkerchief [Alamgiri]. To burn impure oil or use an impure substance in the Masjid is forbidden.
  • Rule: If a place within the Masjid has been designated from when the Masjid was built as an area to perform Wuzu then you can do so and can do it using a container but the condition is that you be very careful that splashes do not enter the Masjid [Alamgiri]. After Wuzu to shake off the water from your hands or face in the Masjid is forbidden [Bahar].
  • Rule: Make sure that you do not put the dirt swept from the Masjid in a place where it is open to disrespect.
  • Rule: It is not allowed to plant trees in the Masjid, however, if the ground is damp and therefore needs a tree to be planted there or the pillars are weak and require additional support then it is allowable to plant trees in the Masjid [Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: To ensure that the rules of the Masjid are adhered to, you are allowed to build a room or partition inside the Masjid [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: It is Haram to beg inside the Masjid and to give a beggar some money is also not allowed [Muslim etc.]. It is not allowed to go inside the Masjid after eating or putting on a substance that gives off a foul stench.
  • Rule: You are not allowed to go inside the Masjid after eating raw garlic or onions until the smell disappears. The same rule applies to all those items that smell and the Masjid should be protected from it until the smell goes, in the same way if an ill person has applied ointment or medication that has a bad smell should not be allowed in the Masjid and neither should a person who suffers from a disease such as leprosy or skin disease etc. A person who has a habit of using bad language or has an abusive manner should also be prevented from going into the Masjid [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. It is not allowed to talk inside the Masjid of unnecessary things and neither is speaking in a loud voice [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Sagiri].
  • Rule: For the cleanliness of the Masjid you are allowed to clean out the nest of a pigeon or bat etc [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is better to pray Namaz in the village or local Masjid than to pray in the Jamia (Central) Masjid even if the Jamaat is small, in fact if there is no Jamaat performed in the local Masjid then perform Azaan and pray Namaz alone as this is better than to pray in the Jamia Masjid [Sagiri etc.].


WITR NAMAZ

The Namaz of Witr is Wajib and if for some reason it has not been prayed during it's allocated time then it's Qaza is also Wajib [Alamgiri, Hidaya]. Witr Namaz contains three Rakaat to be performed with one Salaam, the same as the Maghrib Namaz. The first Qaidah is Wajib, meaning after two Rakaats you must sit down and only pray Attahiyat and then stand back up and pray Alhamdo and a Surat and then lift both hands upto the ear lobes and whilst saying Allaho Akbar fold them again and pray 'Dua-e-Kunoot'. After praying Dua-e-Kunoot perform Rukooh and finish the Namaz as normal.

  • Rule: It is Wajib to pray Dua-e-Kunoot and it is not Wajib to pray any specific Dua, however, it is better to pray those Duas which have been mentioned in the Hadiths. The most common one is as follows; "Allahumma Inna Nasta'inuka Wa Nastaghfiruka Wa Nu'Minu Beka Wana Tawwakkalu Alaika Wanusni Alaikal Khair Wa Nashkuruka Walaa Nakfuruka Wa Nakhla'u Wanatruku Mayyaf Juruka. Allahumma iyyakana'budu Walaka Nusalli Wanasjudu Wa ilaka Nas'aa Wanahfidu Wanarju Rahamataka Wa Nakhsha Azaabaka inna Azaabaka BilKuffari Mulhiq".
  • Rule: Those who cannot, pray Dua-e-Kunoot, should pray this; "Rabbana Aatina Fiddunya Hasanataw Wafil Aakhirati Hasanataw Wa Qina Azaaban Naar" and those who cannot pray this should pray "Allahummagh Firli" three times [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Dua-e-Kunoot should always be prayed quietly, whether it be the Imaam or a Muqtadee or a Munfarid, whether it be the month of Ramadan or other days, whether it be Ada or Qaza [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Except for Witr, do not pray Dua-e-Kunoot in any other Namaz. However, if there is a serious difficulty or incident then you can pray it in Fajr also. The way to pray it in Fajr is the same as Witr except for it is done in the second Rakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
  • Rule: If you forget to sit in the first Qaidah then you are not allowed to sit back down, but you should continue and perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo at the end. If you forget to pray Kunoot and you go into the Rukooh then do not pray it in the Rukooh nor return to the Qayam position, but continue your Namaz as normal and perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo at the end and the Namaz will count. In Witr the Qiraayat is obligatory in all three Rakats and to join a Surat after Alhamdo is Wajib.
  • Rule: It is better if you pray 'Sabbihismi Rabbikal Aalaa' or 'Inna Anzalna' in the first Rakat and in the second 'QuI Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' and in the third 'QuI Huwallah Ho Ahad' and sometimes pray other Surats.
  • Rule: The Namaz of Witr cannot be prayed whilst sitting down or on a cavalcade (item used for travelling e.g. horse, car, camel etc.) without a real reason [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: For a Sahib-e-Tarteeb who is aware that he has not yet prayed the Namaz of Witr and during the Fajr time he prayed the Fajr Namaz and there is enough time for him to pray the Qaza of Witr and then he must pray the Fajr Namaz again, then his first Fajr will not count whether it be during the beginning time, middle or near the end time of Fajr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

When can Witr be prayed with Jamaat?

  • Rule: The Witr Namaz can only be prayed with Jamaat during the holy month of Ramadan, except for Ramadan it is Makrooh to pray with Jamaat [Hidaya etc.]. In fact it is Mustahhab to pray it with Jamaat in this great month of Ramadan.
  • Rule: If a person has not prayed the Farz of Isha with Jamaat, then he should also pray the Witr alone, even if he has prayed the Tarawih with Jamaat.


SUNNATS AND NAFLS

  • Rules of Sunnat-e-Maukida and Ghair Maukida

There are many Sunnats which are regarded as Maukida, whereby it has been regarded as important in Shariat and to miss it even once without reason is worth reprimanding, and to make a habit of missing them would mean being a wrongdoer (Fasiq) who's giving oath would not be counted and is worthy of hell. To miss it is close to Haram and those who miss it have a risk of not being interceded on the day of judgement. Sunnat-e-Maukida is sometimes also referred to as Sunun-e-Hidaya. Many Sunnats are Ghair Maukida and are sometimes referred to as Sunun-e-Zawa'id and it's importance has not been defined in Shariat and sometimes is quoted as Mustahhab. Nafl are those actions which by doing would gain reward and to miss carries no punishment and there is no harm in missing.

Namaz which is Sunnat-e-Maukida

  • Rule: The Sunnat-e-Maukida are these;
  • The first two Rakats of Fajr, before the Farz Namaz
  • The first four Rakats of Zohr before the Farz Namaz and the two Rakats of Zohr after the Farz Namaz.
  • The two Rakats after the Farz Rakats of Maghrib.
  • The two Rakats of Isha after the Farz Rakats.
  • The first four Rakats before Farz of Ju'ma and the four Rakats after Farz and it is better also to pray the two Rakats additionally after Farz [Guniya, Hidaya].
  • Rule: The most important Maukidah is the Sunnats of Fajr, upto the extent that many Ulema regard them as Wajib. Therefore they cannot be prayed without reason whilst sitting or on a vehicle or moving car [Fatahul Qadir etc.].
  • Rules of missing Sunnats
  • Rule: If the Fajr Namaz became Qaza and you prayed them before midday then also pray the Qaza for the Sunnats otherwise don't. Except for Fajr if all other Sunnats became Qaza, then there is no Qaza for them.
  • Rule: If you missed the first Sunnats of Zohr or Ju'ma and prayed the Farz Rakats then if there is time pray the Sunnats after and it is better to pray them after the normal Sunnats that are prayed after the Farz Namaz [Fatahut Qadir, Bahar].
  • Rule: If the Sunnats of Fajr are not prayed and the Farz Namaz is prayed then do not pray them until after sunrise as Qaza as it is better to pray them after sunrise and it is not allowed to pray them in this situation before sunrise [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: It is Sunnat to pray in the Sunnats of Fajr, in the first Rakat 'QuI Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' and in the second 'QuI Huwallaho Ahad'.
    When Nafl is allowed
  • Rule: It is not allowed to start any Nafl or Sunnat once Jamaat has started. The only exception is the Sunnats of Fajr and the rule is you must start them even if the Jamaat has started as long as you are aware that you can finish the Sunnats and join the Jamaat even if it is in the last Qaidah. You must pray these Sunnats separately away from the rows of Jamaat as to pray them in the same row as the Jamaat is not allowed.
  • Rule: If you are aware that if you pray Nafl or Sunnat then you will miss the Jamaat, then it is not allowed to start the Nafl or Sunnat.


Mustahhab Namaz

  • Rule: Four Rakaat Namaz before Isha and Asr and four Rakats after Isha all with one Salaam is Mustahhab. It is also the case if you pray two Rakats after Isha then the Mustahhab will be fulfilled. It is also Mustahhab to pray four Rakats after Zohr. It is quoted in the Hadith that those who pray these will have the fire of hell made Haram for them.

Salaatul Awaabeen

  • Rule: After Maghrib, to pray six Rakats is Mustahhab and they are known as SalaatuI Awaabeen. It is better to pray them in two, two Rakats [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: The Mustahhab of Zohr, Asr and Isha include the Sunnat-e-Maukida. For example if you pray four Rakats after Zohr Farz then both the Sunnats and the Mustahhab will be fulfilled and alternatively you can pray them both with one Salaam. Meaning perform Salaam after four Rakats and only the intention of Sunnat is sufficient, there is no need to define the Maukida and Mustahhab separately as they both will be fulfilled [Fatahul Qadir, Bahar].
  • Rule: Qiraayat is obligatory in all the Rakats of Nafl and Sunnat.
  • Rule: To intentionally start a Sunnat or Nafl Namaz will make it Wajib, meaning if you break it then to repeat or perform it's Qaza is Wajib.
  • Rule: Nafl Namaz can be prayed without reason whilst sitting down, however, to pray it standing up carries double reward [Hidaya].
  • Rule: If you are praying Nafl sitting down then sit as if you are sat in Qaidah except for when you are praying Qiraayat have your arms folded below the navel just as you have them when stood up [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: The two Rakats Nafl that are prayed after Witr, it is better to pray 'Iza Zul ZilatuI Ardo' in the first Rakat and 'QuI Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' in the second Rakat.

Where is it better to pray Sunnat and Nafl ?

  • Rule: It is better to pray the Sunnat and Nafl in the home [Hidaya etc.].
  • Rule: Do not talk between the Sunnat and Farz Namaz as the reward is reduced [Fatahul Qadir], the same rule applies to any action which is forbidden as soon as Takbeer-e-Tahrima is said (i.e. eat, drink, talk etc.) [Tanweer, Bahar].

Namaz of Tahajjud

After praying Isha and after sleeping, the time that you wake up is the time of Tahajjud, however, it is better to pray in the last third of the night. Tahujjud is Sunnat and is prayed without the intention of Sunnat and is at least two Rakats and most is eight Rakats [Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri].

  • Rule: In a Nafl Namaz during the day it is Makrooh to pray it more that four Rakats without performing Salaam and during the night it is Makrooh to pray it more than eight Rakats without performing salaam. Whether it is be day or night it is better to perform Salaam at the maximum of four Rakats [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If you have made the intention of praying more than two Rakats of Nafl then you must perform Qaidah between every two Rakats.

Notice: To pray more than two Rakats of Nafl in one Salaam will make the rules rather difficult to observe and that is why it is better to pray two, two Rakats.

Namaz Ishraq

This Namaz is also Sunnat. After praying Fajr keep on praying the Durood Sharif. After the sun has risen slightly meaning at least twenty minutes from the start of sunrise has passed, then pray two Rakats.

Namaz_Chaasht

This is also Sunnat and there are at least two Rakats or at the most twelve Rakats, and it is better to pray all twelve. The time for this is when the sun has well risen upto the start of midday, however, it is better to pray it when the sun has quarter risen in the sky.

Namaz Istikhara

It has been quoted in the Hadiths that when a person makes an intention for something then he should pray two Rakats Nafl. In the first Rakat after Alhamdo pray 'QuI Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' and in the second Rakat after Alhamdo pray 'QuI Huwallaho Ahad' and then pray the following Dua and with Wuzu face the Qibla and go to sleep. At the beginning of the Dua and at the end, pray Alhamdo and Durood Sharif. The Dua is as follows; "Allahumma inni Astakhiruka Bi ilmika Wa Astakdiruka Bi Qudratika Wa As'aluka Min Fadlikal Azueemi Fa innaka Taqdiru Wala Aqdiru Wa Ta'lamu Walaa A'lamu Wa anta Allamul Ghuyub Allahumma In kunta Ta'lamu Anna Hazal Amra Khairulli Fi Deeni Wa Ma'aashi Wa Aaqibati Amri Wa Aajili Amri Wa'Aajilihi Faqdurhuli Wa Yasirrihuli Summa Baarikli Feehi Wa'inkunta Ta'lamu Anna Hazal Amra Sharruli Fi Deeni Wa ma'aashi Wa'Aaqibati Amri Wa Aajili Amri Wa Aajilihi Fa'asrif'hu Anni Wa as'rifni Anhu Waqdur liyal Khaira Haiysu Kaana Summa Raddini Bihi"

At both 'Al Amra' mention your request. Just like in the first one say 'Haza Safara Khairuli' and in the second one say "Haza Safara Sharruli' [Guniya].

When should Istikhara be done ?

  • Rule: There is no Istikhara for pious actions such as Hajj, Jihad etc. However, you can perform Istikhara to designate a fixed time for them [Guniya].
  • Rule: It is better to perform Istakhara at least seven times and then see wherever your conscience is fixed that is what is best for you. Many pious Buzrukhs say that if you see whiteness or greenery in your dreams then it is good and if you see darkness or redness then it is a bad thing and you should stay away from it [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

Namaz-e-Haajat (Fulfilling Needs)

When someone has a need from Allah Ta'ala or requires something from a person or they are in some sort of difficulty, then carefully perform Wuzu and then pray two or four Rakats Nafl Namaz. In the first Rakat after Alhamdo pray 'AyatuI Kursi' three times. In the second Rakat after Alhamdo pray 'QuI Huwallaho Ahad' once. In the third Rakat after Alhamdo pray 'QuI A'oozo Birabbil Falaq' once and in the fourth Rakat after Alhamdo pray 'QuI A'oozo Birabbin Naas' once. After Salaam pray the following three times; "Huwallahul Lazi Laa'ilaha illa Huwa Aalimul Ghaibi Wash'shahaadati Huwar Rahmanur Rahim" then three times pray "Subhanallahi Walhamdo Lillahi Wa Laailaha illallaho Wallaho Akbar Walaa Hawla Walaa Quwwata illa Billah" then three times pray a Durood Sharif and then pray this Dua;

"La ilaha illallahul Hakeemul Kareem Subhanallahi Rabbil Arshil Azeem Alhamdo Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen As'aluka Maujibaati Rahmatika Wa'azaai'ma Maghfiratika Wal Ghanimati Min Kulli Birriw Wassalamata Min Kulli Ismin Laatada' Li Zamban illa Ghafaratahu Walaa Hamman illa Farrajtahu Walaa Haajatan Hiya Laka Rizan illa Qafaytuhi Yaa Ar'hamarraahimin"

Namaz of Tarawih

Tarawih is the twenty Rakat Namaz that is Sunnat-e-Maukida and is prayed in the month of Ramadan after the Farz Namaz of Isha every night.

  • Rule: The time of Tarawih is after praying the Farz of Isha until the beginning of the break of dawn [Hidaya]. In Tarawih the Jamaat is Sunnat-e-Kifayaa, meaning if all the people of the Masjid missed it then they would all be responsible for the sin and if one person prayed at home alone then he has not committed a sin [Hidaya, Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: It is Mustahhab to delay it until one third of the night has passed and if you wait until half the night has passed then there is no harm [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: Just as the Tarawih is Sunnat-e-Maukida for men, in the same way it is Sunnat-e-Maukida for women and they are not allowed to miss it [Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: The twenty Rakats of Tarawih are to be prayed in two, two Rakats i.e. performing salaam after every two Rakats and therefore in total ten salaams. After every four Rakats it is Mustahhab to rest for the duration it took to pray the four Rakats, this rest is called Tarwih [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: After the Tarawih has finished the fifth Tarwih is also Mustahhab. If the fifth Tarwih is a burden on people then do not do it [Alamgiri, etc.].
  • Rule: There is flexibility in Tarwih, whether you remain quiet or you can pray some Tasbeeh, Quran, Durood Sharif or Dua and if he wished he can pray Nafl alone, but to do this with Jamaat is Makrooh [Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: Those who have not prayed the Farz of Isha cannot pray the Tarawih nor Witr until he prays the Farz.
  • Rule: Those who prayed the Farz of Isha alone can pray the Tarawih with Jamaat but he must pray the Witr alone [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you have prayed the Isha Farz with Jamaat and then prayed the Tarawih alone, he can join the Jamaat for Witr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you have some Rakats of Tarawih left and the Imam has stood up for Witr then it is better to pray the Witr with Jamaat as long as you have prayed Isha Farz with Jamaat and then you can pray the remaining Rakats of Tarawih. It is also allowed to complete your Rakats of Tarawih and then pray Witr alone [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If people have prayed the Tarawih and now they want to pray it again then they can pray it alone but it is not allowed to pray it with Jamaat again [Alamgiri]. If one Imam prays Tarawih in two masjids and if he prays the full Tarawih in both masjids then this is not allowed. If the Muqtadee prays the Tarawih in full in both masjids [hen there is no problem, however, he is not allowed to pray Witr again if he has already prayed in the first masjid [Alamgiri].
    Rule: It is better to pray the Tarawih with Jamaat in the masjid. If the Tarawih is prayed in a house with Jamaat then you will not get the sin of missing Jamaat as it will still be counted but the reward will be less than praying in the masjid [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: The Tarawih prayed behind a child will not count for any adults who prayed behind the child [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: In the whole month of Ramadan to finish the Quran once is Sunnat-e-Maukidah and to finish it twice is virtuous and to finish it three times is a good thing. You should not miss this opportunity just because people are idle [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: To give a Hafiz a salary for praying the Tarawih is not allowed and the giver and taker are both sinners. A salary is not just a fixing of the fee such as I will take this much for praying the Tarawih or I will give you so much for praying the Tarawih, but if a Hafiz believes he will pray at a certain place he will get so much then this is also not allowed. If the people say we will not give you anything or the Hafiz says I will not take anything and then the public decide to give the Hafiz a gift or some money as a gesture to thank him for his efforts then there is no problem with this [Bahar-e-Shariat].
    Shabinah
  • Rule: Shabinah meaning to finish the whole Quran in one night in Tarawih. During today's era where a Hafiz prays the Quran at great speed that the words cannot be understood. Never mind praying the words where the pronunciation is done correctly the listeners are also in a state where some are sat down, some are lying down, some are even sleeping and some perform the Takbeer-e-Tahmnah when the Imam goes into the Rukooh and then they are doing this very quickly, in all these situations the Shabinah is not allowed. If the Hafiz prays speedily to pose off then this is Haram and is a sinner.

NAMAZ FOR THE SICK

If a person due to illness cannot stand and pray Namaz then they should sit and pray Namaz. Whilst seated he should perform Rukooh by leaning far forward and pray 'Subhana Rabbial Azueem' and then sit back up straight and then go into Sijdah as normal. If he is not able to pray Namaz whilst being seated then he should lay down and pray. The method is to lay down flat and point the feet towards Qibla and keep the knees up and keep a pillow underneath the head so that the face is pointing towards Qibia and the head is higher than the rest of the body. To perform Rukooh and Sijdah by actions, for the Sijdah lean the head completely forward and for the Rukooh lean the head slightly forward. In the same way Namaz can also be prayed lying on your left or right side.

When can an ill person miss Namaz. ?

  • Rule:When an ill person cannot even move his head then the Namaz is forgiven and there is no need to use the eyes to perform the actions or eyebrows or to pray with an intention only in the heart. If six Namaz pass like this then there is no need to perform Qaza as this is also forgiven and there is no need for Fidya (monetary compensation). If the time like this is less than six Namaz then Qaza is obligatory even if the health is only a little better that the person can now move his head to perform the actions [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
  • Rule: If an ill person is in a state whereby he cannot keep count of the Rakats and Rukoohs or Sijdahs then there is no need for him to perform Namaz on time [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: To stand in all Farz Namaz, Witr, Eid Namaz and the Sunnats of Fajr is obligatory and if Namaz is prayed whilst sitting down without genuine reason then the Namaz will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Because the Qayam is Farz therefore without a genuine religiously recognised reason it cannot be missed, otherwise the Namaz will not count. Upto the extent that if you can lean on a stick, servant or wall then it is Farz to do this and if you can only stand for a small amount of time like whilst saying Allaho Akbar in Takbeer-e-Tahrimah then it is Farz to start the Namaz whilst standing and then sit down afterwards otherwise the Namaz will not count. If you have a slight headache or flu or a cold or a small wound where people can walk about, is in no way a reason to pray the Namaz whilst being seated and if you have done so then it has not counted and you must pray Qaza for them [Guniya, Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If a person leaks drops of urine or blood if he stands and doesn't if he sits then it is Farz for him to pray whilst seated as long as there is no other way of stopping his illness.
  • Rule: A person is so weak that if he goes to the masjid to pray the Namaz with Jamaat then he will have to sit down and pray Namaz, but if he remains at home then he can pray the Namaz standing, then it is Farz for him to pray the Namaz at home with Jamaat if possible otherwise alone [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If an ill person prays whilst standing then he cannot pray the Quran at all and if he prays whilst seated he can pray the Quran, then it is Farz for him to pray whilst sitting down and if he can pray a little bit of the Quran whilst standing then it is Farz to pray as much as he can whilst standing and then the remainder whilst seated [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Rule: If a blanket is put underneath the ill person praying Namaz and it has become impure but if you were to change it, it will become impure' again then continue to pray the Namaz on the original blanket and if the blanket is changed then the new blanket will not become as impure as quickly but by changing the blanket it will cause great distress to the ill person then do not change it [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If a person is drowning and he can gain support from a stick then it is Farz for him to pray the Namaz as long as Amar-e-Kasir is not performed and if he does not pray and he survives then he must perform Qaza [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

QAZA NAMAZ

To make a Namaz Qaza without genuine Shariat reason is a big sin and to pray the Namaz is Farz and is necessary to perform repentance with sincerity. By the use of repentance or having the Hajj accepted will eradicate the sin for delaying the Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

  • Rule: Repentance is only correct when the Qaza is prayed and if you perform repentance but continue not to pray the Qaza or continue committing the sin then this is not repentance [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. It is quoted in the Hadith that a person who performs Tauba (repentance) but continues performing that sin then he has not performed repentance but is playing a joke with Allah.

Description of Qaza

  • Rule: Whatever a servant has been ordered, then to perform that act on time is known as Ada, and if the time passes then it is known as Qaza.
  • Rule: If you perform Tahrima within the time then the Namaz is not Qaza but it is Ada, however, the exception to this rule is for the Namaz of Fajr, Ju'ma or Eid Namaz whereby the final salaam has to be performed before the time has ended [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If a Namaz becomes Qaza due to sleeping or by forgetting then to pray the Qaza is Farz but the sin for Qaza does not apply, however once awake or remembering and as long as the time is not Makrooh then you must pray it immediately and to deiay will be a Makrooh [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: The Qaza of Farz Namaz is Farz, the Qaza of Wajib is Wajib and the Qaza of Sunnat is Sunnat for those Sunnats that carry a Qaza such as the Sunnats of Fajr when the Farz has also been missed and the first Sunnats of Zohr when the Farz has been prayed and the time of Zohr has not finished [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

Time of Qaza

  • Rule: There is no fixed time for praying Qaza as whenever it is prayed the duty will be fulfilled except for sunrise, just before sunset and exact midday, as no Namaz is allowed during these times [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Whichever Namaz has been missed has to be prayed like that, for example, if a four Rakat Namaz has been missed whilst on a journey then only two Rakats will be prayed when praying it's Qaza even if you are praying it back at home and if a four Rakat Namaz was made Qaza at home then if you pray it on a journey you will still have to pray four Rakats. If there is a problem when praying Qaza then you are allowed to accommodate for that meaning, if when the Namaz was made Qaza you were allowed to stand and pray and now you are unable to stand and pray and therefore have to sit and pray the Namaz then you are allowed to do this and when you get better there is no need to repeat this Qaza [Alamgiri].

Which Qaza Namaz is forgiven

  • Rule:If a person is so ill that they cannot pray Namaz even by actions and if this situation remains for six Namaz then the Qaza Namaz is not Wajib [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If a mental person has missed Namaz during his illness and it has been for a period of more than six Namaz continuously then there is no need to perform Qaza [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If there is enough time to pray both Qaza and Ada in short then you can do this and if by expanding the praying then there is not enough time to pray both Namaz then the routine (Tarteeb) is still Farz and if by missing all allowed things but not Wajibs or Farz in Namaz you can pray both, then this should be done if possible [Alamgiri].

ROUTINE IS NECESSARY IN QAZA NAMAZ

  • Rule: For a Sahib-e-Tarteeb, meaning for those who have less than six Namaz in total of Qaza to pray, then when remembering and there being enough time to pray theQaza, he prays his Ada instead then this Namaz will not count. This means he will still have to pray the Ada Namaz again. If he continued praying the Ada Namaz and missed the Qaza until he has prayed the sixth Namaz and then all the Namaz will be correct as he will no longer be Sahib-e-Tarteeb any more and if in between he prays one Qaza, then all the Ada will not count.
  • Rule: Tarteeb meaning routine is necessary for the missed Namaz and the Ada Namaz as long as there are less than six missed Namaz and hence first the Qaza should be prayed then the Ada. For example if today someone's Fajr, Zohr, Asr and Maghrib became Qaza then he cannot pray the Isha Namaz until he has prayed the Qaza for the four Namaz in sequence first.
  • Rule: If there isn't enough time to pray the Ada and all the Qaza Namaz then pray as many Qaza and the Ada as possible and for the rest, Tarteeb can be missed, for example, if both the Farz of Isha and Witr became Qaza and in Fajr you only had time to pray five Rakats then you pray three Rakats of Witr and two of Fajr, and if you only had time for six Rakats then pray the Qaza of Farz Isha and pray two Rakats Farz of Fajr [Shareh Wiqaya].
  • Rule: If six Namaz became Qaza and as soon as the time for the sixth is finished there is no longer a need for Tarteeb and now regardless of remembering and having time if you pray the Ada Namaz it will count. Whether the Qaza have occurred all in one go meaning six Namaz together or by six in a few days, for example, your Fajr became Qaza for six days and you continued praying Ada and totally forgot about the Qaza then the same rule applies and you are no longer a Sahib-e-Tarteeb [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: As soon as six Namaz became Qaza and the time for the sixth Namaz has gone then Tarteeb is no longer Farz anymore, whether all the missed Namaz are old or some are recent and some are old , meaning if you missed a month's Namaz and then started praying again and again missed a couple you are still no longer a Sahib-e-Tarteeb as you have more than six Qaza in total to pray [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: When due to having more than six Qaza the Tarteeb is no longer necessary then if some of the Qaza is prayed and there are less than six Qaza remaining in total then you will still no longer be Sahib-e-Tarteeb until all the Qaza is prayed, and when this is the case you will become Sahib-e-Tarteeb again [Shareh Wafaya, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Just as six or more Qaza Namaz clears the necessity for routine for the Ada and Qaza Namaz, there is also no need for routine for the Qaza Namaz, meaning that the remanding Qaza can be prayed in whichever sequence deemed suitable, for example, if someone missed a full month's Namaz and then he prayed them first the thirty Farz of Fajr then the thirty Namaz of Zohr etc. and this would also be acceptable and the Namaz will count [Alamgiri]. Whoever has the responsibility of praying Qaza Namaz although it is necessary for them to be prayed as soon as possible they can be delayed due to responsibilities towards the family, or work etc. and whenever he gains some free time he should pray the Qaza until they are all complete [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: Qaza Namaz is more important than the Nafl Namaz and therefore when you pray the Nafl instead you should pray any Qaza you may have left, however, do not replace the Tarawih or the twelve Sunnat-e-Maukidah (in the day).
  • Rule: For those who have the responsibility of many years Qaza and they cannot remember exactly how many then they should make the intention that "I am praying the first Qaza of Fajr or Zohr or Asr, that is due from me" and complete all the Qaza like this until they are certain that they have none left to perform.

Age of becoming an Adult

  • Rule: Whether a person is male or female, once they reach the age of adolescence all Namaz and Roza etc. will become obligatory for them. A female's age is at least nine and at the most fifteen and a male's age is a minimum of twelve and a maximum of fifteen. It is necessary to believe a fifteen year old as an adult according to Shariat whether or not they show signs of adulthood.

To be illiterate is not an excuse

  • Rule: It is obligatory for all adult Muslims to learn the Farz rules of Shariat and being illiterate or a female is not an excuse. If you are not aware of your obligations and necessities according to Islam then you will be a sinner and caught in the grounds of punishment.

Compensation for Namaz (Fidya)

  • Rule: If a person's Namaz has become Qaza and he dies then if he has left an order in his will to pay Fidya for his Qaza Namaz and he has left some money or goods, then Fidya should be paid from one third of the money or goods left by him and one half Sa'a (approx. 4lb 8oz) of wheat or one Sa'a ( approx. 9lb) of Sadqa is to be given to the poor for every Farz or Wajib missed. If the dying person has not left any goods then the next of kin can give to the poor from his own goods. The way to do this is the next of kin to give half a Sa'a to a pauper and he would become the owner, and the pauper would now as the owner give the goods back to the next of kin as a gift and now the next of kin would become the owner and to continue this process until all the Namaz have been counted for. If the person who has died has left some goods but is not enough then the same process should be applied. If the person who has died has not left an order in his will to give Fidya and the next of kin wishes to do so then they can.
  • Rule: For whose Namaz there is fault or improper then they should repeat the whole lot as this is a good thing and if there is no fault then they shouldn't but if they would like to do so then they pray them after Fajr or Asr and should pray all the Rakats in full (with a Surat attached) and for Witr after Kunoot they should perform Qaidah and then join another Rakat to make it a total of four [Alamgiri].

Qaza-e-Umri does not exist

  • Rule: Many people on the night of Shabb-e-Qadr or at the end of Ramadan pray two Rakats Namaz and believe that all their Qaza for a lifetime has been fulfilled, this is totally wrong and incorrect and is not possible.

NAMAZ FOR A TRAVELLER

  • According to Shariat a traveller is a person who leaves his village or area with an intention of travelling for a distance of three days.
  • Rule: A day means the shortest day in the year and the whole day does not mean a distance of a person travelling from in the morning to night but the major part of the day. For example, started walking from the break of dawn to the afternoon and then repeated the same for the next two days, then the total distance is regarded as travelling distance according to Shariat. Walking from dawn to the afternoon does not mean continuous walking, but resting as and when necessary and the speed is not too fast nor too slow. Walking on dry land means the same speed as a camel and a man walking, walking on rocks and rough ground is whatever speed necessary to walk and travelling on a boat is the speed when the wind is not too fast nor too still [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: On dry ground the measurement is taken as miles and the total amount of miles are fifty seven and a half {57.5} (we have not mentioned any old measurements used) [Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar-e-ShariatJ.

Distance of Travel and the application of Qasr

  • Rule: If the distance of three days is covered in two days or less then it is still regarded as a journey and a distance of less than three days is covered in more than three days then it is still not regarded as a journey [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri}.
  • Rule: A clear route on dry round for a distance of 57.5 miles is covered in a car or train in less than an hour but according to Shariat it is still regarded as a journey and the rules of Qasr and other journey rules will apply [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Only an intention of travelling is not sufficient but they have to leave the area, if it is a city then to leave the city, if it is a town to leave the town and if it is a city then not only the city but it's associated landmarks then the journey has begun [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If the station is outside the area then once reaching the station the journey will begin as long the intention to travel for a 'journey' has been made.
  • Rule: It is also necessary for a traveller to make the intention of a distance of more than three days (57.5 miles) from where he starts and if he makes the intention to travel for a distance of two days and then from there he made the intention of travelling another two days distance he will not be a traveller even though like this he may travel the whole world [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: It is also necessary for a journey to make the intention of travelling for a continuous distance of three days meaning if a person made the intention of travelling two days and stopping and did some work and then travelled for another day this would not be counted as a journey [Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar-e-Shariat].

ORDERS FOR A TRAVELLER

The meaning of Qasr

It is Wajib for a traveller to perform Qasr for Namaz, meaning For four Rakat Farz he should pray two Rakats as for the traveller this the full Namaz.

  • Rule: There is no Qasr for Maghrib and Fajr and should be prayed in full. Only for the Farz Namaz of Zohr, Asr and Isha there is Qasr.
  • Rule: If a traveller does not perform Qasr then he will be a sinner.

No Qasr for Sunnats

  • Rule: There is no Qasr in Sunnat and therefore should be prayed in full. In fact due to fear or if in a hurry you can miss the Sunnats but you cannot pray them as Qasr [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If a traveller instead of praying Qasr he prays the full four Rakats then if he has performed Qaidah in the second Rakat, then his Namaz will count and if he does not perform Qaidah in the second Rakat then his Namaz will be void.
  • Rule: A person is a traveller until he returns to his area or makes the intention of staying at the destination for more than fifteen days and this applies when he has travelled for a distance of three days. If he has not yet travelled for a distance of three days and decides to return, he is no longer a traveller even though he might be in a jungle [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].

Conditions of intention when reaching destination

For the intention of reaching destination to be correct there are six conditions, meaning when all six conditions have been fulfilled then he will have finished his full journey, otherwise not.

When you stop walking, if you make the intention whilst walking then you haven't finished your journey.

Wherever you have stopped is fit for stopping, meaning a jungle or boat in a river or ship at sea does not end the journey.

The intention is to stay for fifteen days, if the intention is for less then you will not have finished your journey.

This intention is for one place, if it is for two separate places, i.e. to stay in one place for ten days and the other for five days then you will not have finished your journey.

Your intention is made by yourself and not under the influence of another person who has authority over you and you have total control of your own intention.

  • Rule: A traveller is walking and he has not yet reached his destination and makes the intention then he is still a traveller and if he has reached his destination and makes the intention then he has finished his journey even though he may not have found a place to stay.[Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Those who are under the control of someone else then their intention will count and those they are being controlled by, their intention will count. A husband's intention will count a wife's won't. A master's intention will count a slave's intention will not. An officer of the army's intention will count, the soldier's intention will not. Therefore, if the husband made the intention of finishing the journey and the wife did not then both will have finished the journey because the husband's intention will count and the wife's intention will not and in the same way if the wife made the intention of finishing the journey and the husband did not then they will not have finished the journey, and the same rule applies to all those who are dependent on someone else.
    When can a traveller and non traveller follow each other
  • Rule: A non traveller can follow a traveller and when the Imam (who is the traveller) performs Salaam after two Rakats the non traveller who is the Muqtadee will stand up and finish his two remaining Rakats but in Qayam he must not pray anything and remain stood for the length of time it takes to pray Surah Fatiha and then go into Rukooh and finish his Namaz off as normal [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
  • Rule: If the Imam is a traveller then he should state that he is a traveller and when he performs Salaam he should say 'all of you finish your Namaz, as I am a traveller'.
  • Rule: If a traveller followed a non traveller meaning the non traveller was the Imam then for the traveller the first Qaidah will become Wajib and will no longer be Farz and therefore if the Imam did not perform the first Qaidah then the Namaz will not become void and if the traveller was Imam then the first Qaidah will be Farz for the non traveller Muqtadees [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Once a traveller reaches his proper home town then he has finished his journey regardless of making an intention or not.

Definition of proper home town

  • Rule: Watn-e-Asli (proper town) is that place where you were born or where people from your family live or you have settled there and the intention is not to move from there. Watn-e-lqamat (Place of stay) is that place where a traveller has made the intention of staying for fifteen or more days [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: One Watn-e-lqamat makes another Watn-e-lqamat void, meaning you stayed with the intention in one place for more than fifteen days and then went to another place with the intention to stay there for fifteen or more days then the first place is no longer a Watn-e-lqamat even if the distance between the two places is not as long as the distance of travel [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: If you reached from Watn-e-lqamat to the Watn-e-Asli or travelled from Watn-e-lqamat for a distance of travel (57.5 miles) then the Watn-e-lqamat is no longer Watn-e-lqamat, meaning if you returned to that place and decided to stay less than fifteen days then you will remain a traveller [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If a traveller gets married and even though his intention is not to stay there for fifteen days he is no longer a traveller and if a person has two wives then once he reaches their home in two different places he is not a traveller.
  • Rule: A woman marries and then goes to live at her husband's place and lives there permanently then her own home is no longer Watn-e-Asli, meaning if her husband's home is a distance of three days from her parent's home and she does not intend to stay there for fifteen days or more then she must pray Qasr Namaz, and if she has not left her parent's home permanently then when she reaches her parent's home her journey has finished and she must pray the full Namaz [Bahar-e-Shariat].

A Woman cannot travel without a Mahrum

  • Rule:It is not allowed for a woman to travel for a distance of three days or more without a Mahrum (her husband or adult relative with whom her marriage is permanently forbidden, e.g. father, brother etc.). In fact she cannot travel for a distance of one day with a child or a person with less intelligence than average without being assisted by her husband or adult Mahrum [Alamgiri, Bahar etc.], it is necessary that the Mahrum is not a big wrongdoer or a person who; has gained disrespect [Bahar-e-Shariat].

PRAYING NAMAZ ON A CONVEYANCE

Whether a person is a traveller due to religion or due to worldly affairs once he leaves the outskirts of his town he can pray Nafl Namaz on his conveyance (vehicle of travel e.g. car, horse, camel etc.) whilst seated and he can perform the Namaz whilst seated and perform the Rukooh by action and the Sijdah by bending slightly more than the Rukooh. Do not place your head on an ornament to perform Sijdah or put something on it to perform Sijdah as this is not allowed and whichever way the conveyance is going, keep your face pointing that way as to point it in another direction is not allowed even for the Takbeer-e-Tahrima it is not necessary for the face to be towards the Qibla [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

  • Rule: When praying Nafl on the conveyance and the conveyance was urged along by Amal-e-Qalil for example, if you used the heal of your foot or in one hand had a whip to urge the horse then this is allowed and to do this, however, without reason it is not allowed [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. The Farz, Wajib, Sunnats of Fajr, Namaz of Janaza, Namaz of Mannat (fulfilled wish), Sijdah-e-Tilawat of those verses which have been prayed on the ground and those Nafl that had started on the ground and were broken cannot be prayed on a conveyance without reason and if there was a genuine reason then if possible the conveyance should be made to face the Qibla and if this is also not possible then try to perform the Namaz in any way possible [Durr-e-MukhtarJ.

Situations when Namaz can be prayed on a conveyance

  • Rule: The reasons whereby the above conditions can be used to pray the Namaz on a conveyance are as follows,
    It is raining.
  • It is muddy that if you got out and prayed then your face would be sunk in the mud or would be filled with mud and whatever cloth that is laid will become wet through with mud. If in this situation you do not have a conveyance then you should stand and pray Namaz with actions.
  • Your companion will go off without you.
  • The animal that is used to travel on is awkward and if you got off you have no-one to help you to get back on.
  • You have an illness and it will get worse by coming off the conveyance.
  • There is a fear or risk to your life, property or woman.[Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Praying Namaz on a moving train

  • Rule: Farz, Wajib or Sunnat cannot be prayed on a moving train. Therefore when the train stops at a station pray these Namaz and if you see that the time is running out then pray the Namaz whichever way possible and then when you get the time repeat the Namaz [Bahar-e-Shariat]. IMPORTANT A moving train should not be mixed with a moving boat or ship because if these are stopped then they wouldn't be stopped on ground and you can touch the ground from the train if you get off and you cannot do that on a ship. It is only allowed to pray Namaz on a ship when it is in mid water, if it is on the shore and you can get off then you must do this as praying on the ship in this situation is not allowed.

Praying Namaz on a boat or ship.

  • Rule:To pray Namaz on a moving ship or boat without cause when you can get off and pray it on the ground is not proper.
  • Rule: If the boat has come up on the ground and is stable then there is no need to come off and you can pray on it.
  • Rule: If the boat is tied on the edge and you have the chance of coming off onto the dry ground and praying then you should do this and if this is not possible then you should pray on the boat whilst standing.
  • Rule: If the ship is anchored in the middle then you can pray sitting down if the winds are strong and there is a fear of falling, and if the winds are not that strong then you cannot pray whilst seated.
  • Rule: Whilst praying Namaz on a ship to remain facing the Qibla is necessary and therefore if the ship moves you move so that you continue facing the Qibla and if it is happening fast then do not pray Namaz at that time, however, if time is running out then you must pray it [Guniya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

JUMA (FRIDAY PRAYER)

Juma is Farz-e-Ain meaning obligatory on all individuals. It's obligation is more important than Zohr and those who reject it is a Kafir [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.]. It is quoted in the Hadith that those who miss three Jumas has thrown Islam behind them, and he is a hypocrite and is disassociated from Allah [Ibne-Khuzaima, Imam Shafaee].

  • Rule: To pray Juma there are six conditions and if one of these is not fulfilled then the Juma will not count.

Conditions of Juma

  • Town or outskirts of town
  • Leadership (King)
  • Time of Zohr
  • Khutba - (Speech)
  • Jamaat
  • Acceptance by majority.

First Condition - Town or Outskirts of town

Town means a place which has many streets and a shopping centre or markets etc. It also has a district and villages belonging to that district. There must also be a judge or mayor belonging to it whom by his power or authority can ensure people go on trial and justice is upheld, even though he may himself be injustice or does not uphold the law. Outskirts of town mean them places which are constructed because of the town, such as a cemetery, stables for horses, barracks for the army and courts and these are on the outskirts of the town to give service to the town and Juma is allowed there. Therefore the Juma should be either prayed in the city or town or the outskirts of the town, it is not allowed in the villages [Guniya, Bahar-e-Shariat]. Rule: For the town, it's judge or mayor needs to reside there and if he travels and goes elsewhere that place visited will not become a town and the Juma would not be allowed there [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat]. Rule: If a person who lives in a village goes to a town and intends to stay there that day then the Juma is Farz for them.

Multiple places in a town where Juma can be prayed

  • Rule: Juma can be performed in a town in multiple locations and anywhere within the town, whether the town is large or small and the Juma can be in two Masjids or more [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. However, without reason Juma should not be prayed in many different locations because Juma is a sign of Islam and is a congregation of all Jamaats and if it is spread about in different Masjids then the same show does not remain as you would get in one large gathering and it is because of the sign of all Muslims uniting that it has been allowed and so the gathering should not be split and a Juma should not be done in every street or area unnecessarily.

Who should lead the Juma ?
There is a very important point that people have not been paying attention to and have been treating Juma like other normal Namaz and whoever wishes has started a new Juma and whoever wishes they have lead it, this is not allowed, because leading the Juma is the duty of the king of Islam or his deputies and wherever there is not Islamic rule then the highest qualified scholar who is from the correct faith of Ahl-e-Sunnat Wa Jamaat is the person who substitutes the Sultan of Islam and ensures that the rules of Islamic law are followed should lead the Juma, and without his permission the Juma cannot be performed. If this is not possible then the person who people choose as their Imam has to lead the Juma prayers. Also whilst the majority of people being present some of them cannot make a person an Imam or four people decide on an Imam, this type of Juma is not proven anywhere [Bahar-e-Shariat].

Second Condition - King or leader

Leader means a Sultan of Islam or his deputy whom the Sultan has given authority to lead the Juma prayers. Even if the Sultan is a ferocious person or a good person he can lead the prayers. If a person has forced himself into power and according to Shariat he has no right of becoming an Imam, such as he is not a Qureshi or does not fulfil any other condition he can still call for juma prayer [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].

Third condition - Time

The time of Juma is the time of Zohr, meaning the Juma should be prayed in the time that Zohr is prayed and if in Juma Namaz you got upto praying Attahiyat and the time of Asr started then the Juma Namaz becomes void and you would have to pray the Qaza of Zohr.

Fourth Condition - Khutba (Speech)

  • Rule: The condition for the Khutba of Juma is that it is done within the time and is done before the Juma Namaz. It must be performed in front of such a Jamaat which is necessary for Juma and that is a minimum of three men except for the person performing the Khutba. It should be so loud that the people nearby can hear it and if this is not the case or the Khutba is prayed before midday or after the Namaz or prayed alone or prayed in front of women or children then in all these situations the Juma will not count.
  • Rule: If between the Khutba and Namaz there is a big gap then that Khutba would not be sufficient [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat].

What is known as a Khutba

  • Rule: Khutba is the remembrance of Allah and therefore even if once 'Alhamdo Lillahi' or 'Subhanallahi' or 'La ila Ha illallah' is prayed, then the Farz would be fulfilled, but to make the Khutba that short is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: It is Sunnat to pray two Khutbas and they should not be very long and if they both together are longer than 'Tawal-e-Mufassal' then it is Makrooh especially in the winter [Guniya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

Things that are Sunnat in the Khutba Rule:

  • Rule: The things that are Sunnat in the Khutba is;
    • The Khateeb (person praying the Khutba) to be clean and stood up.
    • Before the Khutba the Khateeb to be sat down.
    • The Khateeb to be stood on the Mimbar facing the audience and with his back towards the Qibla.
    • The audience to be paying attention to the Imam.
    • To pray 'A'oozubillah' quietly before the Khutba.
    • To pray with your own voice so loud that the people can hear.
    • To start with 'Alhamdo'.
    • To praise Allah Subhana Wa Ta'ala.
    • To bear witness of Allah's monotheism and to bear witness the prophet-hood of the Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam.
    • To send the Holy Prophet Durood.
    • To pray at least one verse of the Holy Quran.
    • In the first Khutba to be words of guidance and advice and in the second Khutba to contain praise and witness and to repeat the Durood and to pray for other Muslims.
    • Both Khutbas to be light.
    • To sit between the two Khutbas for a length of three verses.
    • It is Mustahhab to lower the voice for the second Khutba slightly less than the first one and to remember the great Sahhabis and Hazrat Hamza and Hazrat Abbas Radi Allaho Ta'ala Anhum.

It is better to start the Second Khutba like this:

"Alhamdo Lillahi Nahmadaho Wa Nasta'eenuhu Wa Nastaghfiruhu Wanu'Minu Bihi Wanatawakkalu Alaihi Wa Na'uzubillahi Min Shururi Anfusina Wa Min Sayyi Aati A'malina Mayyahdihillahu Fala Mudillalah Wamayyudlillhu Falaa Haadiyalah Wanash Hadu An La ilaha illallahu Wahdahu La Sharika Lahu Wa Nash Hadu Anna Sayyadina Wa Maulana Muhammadan Abduhu Wa Rasooluh"

If a person is in front of the Imam then he should face the Imam and if he is either on his left or right side then he should turn towards the Imam. It is better to be close to the Imam, however, it is not allowed to cross other people's necks to get there. Although if the Imam has not yet stood up for the Khutba and there is space near the front then it is allowed to go there and if the Imam has already started the Khutba and you then enter the Masjid, then you should sit in the nearest space or corner available. You should sit whilst listening to the Khutba as you sit in Qaidah in Namaz [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Guniya and Bahar].

  • Rule: To praise and exalt a king of Islam which he does not acquire is Haram, for example to call him 'the one who owns people's lives' etc. because this is a lie and is Haram [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: Not to pray a verse of the Quran in the Khutba or not to sit between two Khutbas or for the Khateeb to speak whist praying the Khutba is Makrooh. However, if the Khateeb promoted good or forbid evil then there is no harm [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: To pray the Khutba in another language except Arabic or to mix another language with Arabic is against the Sunnat and is not preferred. Also poetry should not be prayed in the Khutba even if it is in the Arabic language. If the a couple of verses of poetry is said which is about advice and is prayed sometimes then there is no harm [Bahar-e-Shahat].

Fifth Condition - Jamaat

Except for the Imam there must be at least another three men, otherwise the Juma will not count [Hidaya, Shareh Wiqaya, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].

  • Rule: If there are three servants or three travellers or ill people or uneducated or dumb Muqtadees then the Juma will still count. If there are only women or children present then the Juma will not count [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

Sixth Condition - Acceptance of all

This means that the doors of the masjid are opened so that anyone wishing could attend the Juma, no-one must be stopped or prevented. If in a major Masjid (Jamia Masjid) when everyone gathers, the doors were locked behind then the Juma will not count [Alamgiri].

  • Rule: If women are prevented from coming into the Masjid then it won't be against accepting all, as if they came there would be fear of trouble [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

Wajibs of Juma

There are eleven aspects that make Juma Wajib and if even one of these were not fulfilled then it is not Farz but even if he prayed the Juma it will count and in fact for an adult male who is sane it is better to pray the Juma and for a woman it is better to pray Zohr. The conditions are as follows;

  1. To be resident in the town or city.
  2. Juma is not obligatory on an ill person. The illness must be so bad that the person cannot go to the Masjid where Juma prayers are held or if he did go his illness would get worse or it would delay the illness from getting better [Guniya]. A very old person is treated in the same context as an ill person [Qazi Khan, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
    Rule: If a person is caring after an ill person and is aware that if he goes to pray Juma the ill person will be under risk and no-one else is available to look after them the for the carer, then Juma is not Farz [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  3. To be free. Juma is not Farz on a slave and his master can forbid him [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
    Rule: He cannot forbid a worker or employee from going to pray Juma, however, if the Jamia Masjid is far away then he can dock some of his pay and the employee cannot appeal against it [Alamgiri].
  4. Juma is Farz on males, it is not Farz on females.
  5. To be an adult.
  6. To be sane. Both these conditions are not specifically for Juma but for all worship to be Wajib you must be an adult and be sane.
  7. To have sight. Juma is not Farz on the blind, however, it is Farz on the blind person who can walk around the streets without help or assistance and can reach the Masjid on his own accord [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  8. The person can walk and therefore is not handicapped. However, if he is lame but can walk to the Masjid, then Juma is Farz on him.
  9. Juma is not Farz on an imprisoned person who is in Jail. However, it is Farz for a person who has been imprisoned due to debt and is rich and therefore has the means to pay off the debt.
  10. To have fear. If a person has the fear of a king or thief or an oppressor or is worried that he will be imprisoned because he does not have the means to pay off a debt, then Juma is not Farz on them [Radd-ul-MohtarJ.
  11. If there is a fear of a storm or flood or snow or hurricane, meaning that it would cause you harm if you went out in this weather then Juma is not Farz.
  • Rule: The Imamat of Juma can be performed by those males who can be an Imam in other Namaz, even if Juma is not Farz on them e.g. ill person, traveller, Slave etc. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya, Qazi Khan, Fatahul Qadir], meaning when the Sultan of Islam or his deputy or a person whom he has given authority, when they become ill then can still lead the Juma prayers or the person whom the above three have given authority to a person who is a slave or an ill patient or a traveller then they can become an Imam even though Juma is not Farz for them. If a person has been asked to become an Imam by the majority of the public and is worthy of being an Imam in other Namaz, can become Imam even though he may be a person for whom Juma is not Farz, but if a person decides on his own accord to become Imam without authority then the Juma will not count.
  • Rule: If Juma is Farz on a person then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi to pray Zohr before the Juma prayers have been performed in the town.
  • Rule: For an ill person or a traveller or a slave or for anyone for whom Juma is not Farz then for these it is also Makrooh to pray Zohr Namaz with Jamaat in a town whether it be before Juma prayers or after. In the same way if a person missed the Juma prayers then he should pray the Zohr Namaz alone without Azaan or Iqamat, as Jamaat is also not allowed for him [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: The Ulema state that those Masjids where Juma is not held then they should be closed during Zohr time [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: In a village on Fridays the Zohr Namaz should be prayed with Azaan, Iqamat and Jamaat [Alamgih, Bahar]. To go to Juma prayers early and perform Miswaak and to wear nice clean white clothes and to wear scent and use oil on your head and have your hair combed neatly is Mustahhab and to have a bath on Friday before Juma prayers is Sunnat [Alamgiri, Guniya etc.].

Some more Rules of Khutba

As soon as the Imam stands up for the Khutba all Namaz and Zikr and any type of conversation is forbidden. The only exception is that a Sahib-e-Tarteeb can pray his Qaza Namaz. If a person is praying a Sunnat or Nafl Namaz then they should finish it quickly [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar}.

  • Rule: Those things which are Hara'n in Namaz such as eating, drinking, performing Salaam or replying to a Salaam etc. are also Haram in Khutba, even giving good advice and forbidding evil is also forbidden, however, the person praying Khutba can give good advice and forbid evil. When the Khutba is prayed then all those who are present must listen and remain quiet as this is Farz, and those people who are a distance away from the Imam and cannot hear must also remain quiet as this is Wajib on them. If you hear someone talking about something bad then you can indicate with your hand or head but to talk is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: In the state of Khutba you saw that a blind person is going to fall in a well or someone is going to get bitten by a scorpion then you can use your voice, however, if you can indicate to them then you must do this and hence talking will not be allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If the Khateeb prayed for the Muslims then the people listening cannot lift their hands or say Ameen as this is not allowed. If they did this then they will have committed a sin. Whilst praying the Durood Sharif in Khutba for the Khateeb to look at his left and right side is Bid'at.
  • Rule: If the Khateeb said the Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam's name then the people listening should pray the Durood in their hearts as it is not allowed to say it with their tongue and in the same way if they heard a Sahhabi's name to say Radi Allahu Ta'ala Annum with their tongue is not allowed and should be said in the heart [Durr-e-Mukhtar. Bahar etc.].
  • Rule: Except for the Khutba of Juma to listen to other Khutbas is also Wajib such as Khutbas of Eids or Nikkah etc.

When is it Wajib to prepare and rush for Khutba ?

  • Rule: As soon as you hear the first Azaan (One for Khutba) to prepare and rush for Khutba is Wajib and to stop your business as this is also Wajib, upto the extent that if you were shopping in the street then to continue is not allowed and it is worse and a big sin to shop inside the Masjid. If you were eating and you heard the Azaan for Khutba and you were afraid that if you continued eating then you would miss the Juma, then stop eating and go to the Masjid for Juma. Go for Juma io a relaxed and respectable way [Alarngiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: When the Khateeb stands on the Mimbar then an Azaan should be said in front of him. This does not mean in front of him inside the Masjid as the Ulema of Fiqh have said it is Makrooh to call the Azaan inside the Masjid, so it must be done outside the Masjid (Jamaat Hall) [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: The second Azaan should also be called loudly as it is a call for all and if someone did not hear the first then they should attend for the Khutba when hearing the second.
  • Rule: Once the Khutba has finished the Iqamat should be called straight away without delay. To talk about worldly activities between the Khutba and Jamaat is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: The person that has prayed the Khutba should also lead the Namaz, not another. If another did lead the prayer then it will still count as long as he has been given the authority to lead.
  • Rule: It is better to pray for Juma Namaz in the first Rakat the Surah-e-Juma and in the second Surah-e-Munafiqoon, or in the first 'Sabbihismi' and in the second 'Hal Ataaka', however, do not always pray this but change them sometimes.
  • Rule: If you travelled on the day of Juma and was out of the city before midday then there is no harm, otherwise it is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

Notice. On the day of Juma the souls gather together, hence you should visit the cemetery on this day [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].



NAMAZ OF EID

Eid (meaning Fitr and Eid ud Duha) Namaz is Wajib but not for all. It is only Wajib for those for whom Juma is Wajib and the conditions for it are the same as those Juma except in Juma the Khutba is Wajib and for Eid it is Sunnat. If the Khutba was not prayed for Juma then the Juma would not count and if it was not prayed for Eid then the Namaz would count but a bad act has been done. The other difference is that in Juma the Khuba is prayed before Namaz and in Eid it is prayed after. If the Khutba is prayed for Eid before the Namaz then a bad act has been done but the Namaz will count and there is no need to repeat the Khutba and there is no Azaan or Iqamat for Eid Namaz, the only thing that is allowed is to say 'AssalaatuI Jamia' twice [Qazi, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].

  • Rule: To miss the Eid Namaz without reason is mis-guidance and Bid'at [Bahar].
  • Rule: To pray the Eid Namaz in a village is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

The following points are Mustahhab on Eid days;

  1. To cut your hair
  2. To cut your nails
  3. To bathe
  4. To perform Miswaak
  5. To wear good clothes, if you have new then they should be worn, otherwise washed.
  6. To wear a ring (which is allowable in Shariat)
  7. To wear scent
  8. To pray the morning prayer in the Masjid in your area
  9. To go to the Eid place (Eid Gaah) early
  10. To give Sadqah-e-Fitr before the Namaz
  11. To walk to the Eid Gaah.
  12. To return back from a different route.
  13. To eat a few dates before going to Namaz. They should be either three, five, seven etc. but an odd number. If you do not have dates then eat anything sweet before Namaz and if you do not do this then there is no sin but not to eat anything before Isha, then there will be dissatisfaction [Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
  14. To show happiness
  15. To give Sadqah openly
  16. To go to the Eid Gaah respectfully, relaxingly and with your sight lowered.
  17. To congratulate each other.

All the above points are Mustahhab.

  • Rule: You should not say the Takbeer in a loud voice on the way to the Eid Gaah. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: There is no harm in going to the Eid Gaah on a conveyance but those who have the strength to walk then it is better to do so and there is no harm to return back on a conveyance [Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: The time of Eid Namaz starts once the Sun is at the height of a spear and the time remains until midday day. However, it is better to delay the Eid-ul-Fitr Namaz and to pray the Eid-ud-Doha early, and if the time reaches midday before performing Salaam then the Namaz will not count [Hidaya, Qazi Kahn, Durr-e-Mukhtar]. When referring to midday it means midday according to Shariat and which has been explained in the 'time' section

Method of praying Eid Namaz

The method is to make intention for Eid-ul-Fitr or Eid-ud-Doha for two Rakats Wajib and then lift your hands up to your ears and say 'Allaho Akbar' and then fold them below the navel as normal. Now pray 'Sana' and then say Allaho Akbar and lift your hands upto your ears and release them and again lift your hands and say Allaho Akbar and release them again and then lift your hands again and say Allaho Akbar and then fold them. Meaning fold your hands after the first and fourth Takbeer and the second and third Takbeers release your hands. The best way to remember is that if there is something to pray after the Takbeer then fold your hands and where there is nothing to pray release your hands and hang them on the side. After folding your hands after the fourth Takbeer the Imam will quietly pray 'A'oozubillah' and 'Bismillah' and then he will pray 'Alhamdo' and a Surat loudly and then go into Rukooh and Sijdah and complete one Rakat. Then in the second Rakat the Imam will first pray the Alhamdo and a Surat then lift your hands to your ears and say Allaho Akbar and release them and do not fold them and repeat this twice more, therefore a total of three times and on the fourth time say Allaho Akbar and without lifting your hands go into Rukooh. This therefore means that in Eid Namaz there are six extra Takbeers, three before Qirayat and after Takbeer-e-Tahrima in the first Rakat and three after Qirayat in the second Rakat and before the Takbeer for Rukooh. Also in all the extra Takbeers you must lift your hands and between two Takbeers a gap of three Tasbeehs should be made and it is Mustahhab in the Eid Namaz to pray after Alhamdo, 'Surah Juma' in the first Rakat and 'Surah Munafiqoon' in the second or in the first pray 'Sabbih Ismi' and in the second 'Hal Ataaka' [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. After Namaz the Imam will pray two Khutbas and whatever aspects are Sunnat in the Juma Khutba they are also Sunnat in the Eid Khutba and whatever aspects are Makrooh in the Juma Khutba they are also Makrooh in the Eid Khutba. There are only two differences and they are that in Juma before the first Khutba it is Sunnat to sit down and here it. is Sunnat not to sit down, and secondly it is Sunnat in this Khutba to pray Allaho Akbar nine times before the first Khutba and seven times before the second Khutba and fourteen times before standing down from the Mimbar and in the Juma Khutba it is not [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

  • Rule: If someone joins in the first Rakat after the Imam has prayed the Takbeers then they should say all the three extra Takbeers together even if the Imam has started the Qirayat [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If you caught the Imam in Rukooh then first of all say the Takbeer-e-Tahrimah and then if you know that you can pray the three extra Takbeers before the Imam lifts his head from the Rukooh then pray the three Takbeers and then join the Imam in Rukooh and if you fear that if you stayed to pray the three Takbeers the Imam would lift his head from Rukooh then go straight into Rukooh and without lifting your hands pray the three Takbeers quietly in Rukooh and whilst you were praying the three Takbeers the Imam lifted his head from Rukooh then you should also lift your head and leave the remaining Takbeers as these no longer need to be prayed [Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: If you joined in the second Rakat then pray the first Rakat's Takbeer when you stand to pray the missed Rakat [Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: If you joined in after the Imam had come back up from Rukooh then do not say the Takbeers at this stage but pray them when you pray the missed Rakat [Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: If you joined the Namaz in the last Rakat just before the Imam performed Salaam then pray your both Rakats with Takbeers when you stand up [Alamgiri etc.].

The Time of Namaz of Eid and Bakr Eid and duration

  • Rule: If due to some reason the Namaz was not prayed on Eid day (for example, there was a storm or due to cloud the moon could not be seen and a witness gave a statement after the allowed time for Namaz or due to cloud the Eid Namaz carried over to Midday without the Imam realising) then the Namaz should be prayed the next day and if it cannot be prayed the next day then the Eid-u-Fitr Namaz cannot be prayed on the third day. Also, if the Namaz is prayed on the second day, then the time is the same as for the first day and that is from when the sun has risen upto midday (according to Shariat) and if the Namaz is missed on the first day without a genuine reason then it cannot be prayed on the second day [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: Eid-ud-Doha is the same in all aspects as Eid-ul-Fitr except for a few differences and that is that it is Mustahhab on Eid-ud-Doha that nothing should be eaten before the Khutba even if you are not going to perform Qurbani and if you do eat then there is no harm. Also to say the Takbeer loudly on the way to the Masjid and the Namaz for Eid-ud-Doha can be delayed unconditionally upto the twelfth (of Zil Hajj) if there was a reason, it cannot be prayed after the twelfth and to pray it after the tenth without reason is Makrooh [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: If you are going to perform Qurbani then it is Mustahhab that from the first to the tenth of Zil Hajj not to cut your hair or your nails [Radd-ut-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: After Namaz of Eid to perform handshake and embracing like other days to Muslims is a good thing [Washakhal Jeed, Bahar-e-Shariat].

What is Takbeer Tashreeq

The Takbeer Tashreeq is called from the ninth of Zil Hajj from Fajr to the thirteenth of Zil Hajj Asr, after every Farz Namaz that is prayed via main Jamaat and to call it once loudly is Wajib and three times is better. The Takbeer Tashreeq is as follows 'Allaho Akbar Allaho Akbar La ilaha illallah Wallaho Akbar Allaho Akbar Walillahil Hamd' [Tanweerul Absar, Bahar].

  • Rule: The Takbeer Tashreeq is Wajib as soon as the Salaam is performed, meaning until an act has not been performed which takes him away from Namaz such as if he broke his Wuzu deliberately or walked outside the Masjid then the Takbeer is void but if the Wuzu broke on it's own accord then you should still say the Takbeer [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

For Whom is Takbeer Tashreeq Wajib and when is it Wajib ?

  • Rule: Takbeer Tashreeq is Wajib upon those who live in the city or a person who has made the intention of staying in the city, whether it be a woman, a traveller or a person who resides in a village and if these people do not make the intention of staying in the city then the Takbeer is not Wajib upon them [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: Takbeer Tashreeq is also Wajib after the Juma Namaz but not after Nafl or Sunnats, however, you should also say it after Eid Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

NAMAZ OF THE ECLIPSE

Sun Eclipse

The Namaz of Sun Eclipse is Sunnat-e-Maukidah and the Namaz for a Moon Eclipse is Mustahhab. It is Mustahhab to pray the Sun Eclipse Namaz by Jamaat but it can be prayed alone. If it is prayed with Jamaat then all the conditions are the same as per Juma except for the Khutba. The same person leads this Namaz as the same for Juma and if they are not available then the Namaz should be prayed alone either in the home or Masjid [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

  • Rule: Pray the eclipse Namaz when the eclipse is on the Sun and not after the eclipse has moved. If the eclipse has moved but it is still shadowing the Sun then you can still start the Namaz and whilst there is an eclipse and if a cloud covers it then still pray the Namaz [Johra Nera].
  • Rule: If the eclipse occurs during a time where Namaz is not allowed then do not pray the Namaz and perform Dua and if the sun then sets, then finish the Dua and pray Maghrib Namaz [Johra.Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: The Namaz for Eclipse is prayed like a normal Nafl Namaz, that is two Rakats and in every Rakat one Rukooh and two Sijdahs just like other Namaz.
  • Rule: There is no Azaan,Iqamat or praying loudly in the eclipse Namaz and perform Dua after the Namaz upto the time when the sky becomes clear. You can pray more than two Rakats but perform Salaam in either two or four Rakat intervals [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar,FatahulQadir].
  • Rule: If people do not gather together then call them with these words "AssalaatuIJamia" [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: It is better to pray the Jamaat for the Namaz in either the Eid place or the Jamia Masjid and if it's prayed elsewhere then there is no harm [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If you know them, then pray Surah Baqr and Aal-e-Imran or it's length size Surats and in Rukooh and Sijdah also make them long and after Namaz perform a Dua until the eclipse is over. It is also allowed to delay the Namaz and extend the Dua. It does not matter whether the Imam when performing Dua is facing the Qibla or facing the audience and this actually better and all the Muqtadees should say Ameen and it is also all right for the Imam to lean when performing Dua on the Asa (stick) or wall but not climb the Mimbar as this not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar, Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: If the sun eclipse and a funeral Namaz clash together then pray the funeral Namaz first [Johra, Bahar].
  • Rule: There is no Jamaat for the moon eclipse even if the Imam is present, all people should pray on their own [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya, Alarngiri, Fatahul Qadir].
 
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