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The First Qualification Meaning Cleanliness

Method of performing Ablution (Wuzu)

When you want to perform ablution, follow these steps -:

  • First of all make the intention of ablution and then say "Bismillla Hirrahma Nirrahim" and wash both hands upto the wrists.
  • Then perform Miswak (clean teeth with a wooden stick).
  • Then by using the right hand, gargle three times and wash the inside of the mouth, ensuring that the water reaches upto the throat and also all the gums and underneath the tongue. If there is anything stuck on or between the teeth, then release it.
  • Then by using the right hand suck up the water in the nose until it reaches the bone and clean the insides of the nostrils by using the left hand thumb and little finger, three times.
  • After this, take water into the cup of both hands and wash the whole of the face three times, from the start of the forehead where the hair begins to grow, down to and including the chin. Also from the right hand ear lobe to the left hand one, ensuring that no place is left dry. If you have a beard then also wash this and also run your fingers through it. However, if you are wearing an Ehraam then don't run your fingers through the hair.
  • Wash both arms upto and including the elbows three times. Washing the right arm first three times, then the left arm three times.
  • Then perform Masah once, meaning join the fingertips of both hands together leaving out the index fingers and the thumbs on both hands. Then run water on these six fingers and then brush them over the hair, starting from the forehead and ending at the back of the neck. This is done once, ensuring that the palms of the hands and the index fingers and thumbs do not touch the head. Now bring fourth the hands by using the palms and rubbing them at either side of the head. Then clean the inside of the ears by using the index fingers and the back of the ears using the thumbs. Now wash the back of the neck by rubbing the back of the hands on either side of the neck, but ensure that the hands do not go on the throat as this would be Makrooh (disliked).
  • Then wash the right foot, from the toes upto and including the ankles, three times. The perform the same three times for the left foot. Ensure that you wash between the toes.
  • The ablution (Wuzu) is complete and so pray this Dua, 'Allahummajaini Minattawwabeena Wajaini Minal Mutatahhireen'
  • Then take the water and stand up and drink some, as this is cure for the illnesses.
  • Then look towards the sky and pray; 'Subhanaka Allahumma Wa Behamdika Ashhadu An La ilaha illa Anta Astagfiruka Wa Atoobo ilaik' Also pray the Kalima Shahaadat and Sura Inna Anzalna. It is also better if you pray Bismilla and the Durood Sharif when washing every part, also pray Kalima Shahaadat.
    The above is the method of performing Ablution. Out of these some actions are obligatory and if they were missed the ablution would not count. Some aspects are Sunnat and to miss deliberately would be an act of punishment. Some aspects are Mustahhab and to miss them would mean a reduction in reward.

Obligatory aspects of ablution (Wuzu)

There are four point in ablution that are obligatory.

  • To wash the face . Meaning from the beginning of the forehead where hair starts growing upto the bottom of the chin. Also from one ear to the other ear. To ensure that the skin of the face is washed once leaving no part dry.
  • To wash both hands upto and including the elbows once.
  • To perform Masah of one quarter of the head. Meaning to run wet hands over a quarter of the head and at least so that the hair gets wet slightly.
  • To wash both feet upto the ankles once.

The above four aspects are obligatory in ablution. Except for these, whatever methods have been reported are either Sunnat or Mustahhab. There are many Sunnats and Mustahabs in ablution and if you would like to know these in detail, then consult larger books such as 'Bahar-e-Shariat' or 'Fatawa-e Razvia'.

  • Rule: To wash a part means to at least pour two drops of water over each part. To spread water over the parts lightly and not washing the part thoroughly and therefore the ablution or bathing would not count.
  • Rule: To wash the skin above and below the lips, nails, eyes, the hair on eyelashes, eyebrows, the skin underneath jewellery and even the hole pierced in the nose, the skin underneath the mouchtache hair and beard hair and every part or every part in the four parts mentioned is obligatory. If a pinpoint of it was left dry then the ablution will not count.
  • Rule: It is obligatory to perform ablution for Namaz, Sijdah-e-Tilawat or touching the Quran and it is necessary (Wajib) to perform ablution to perform Tawaf.


Makroohats (dislikes) of ablution

Meaning the aspects that should not be done in ablution.

  1. To perform ablution with .the leftover water of ablution or bath performed by a female.
  2. To spill water on a dirty place.
  3. To perform ablution inside the mosque.
  4. To spill used ablution water back into the bucket that contains the ablution water.
  5. To spit out water or mucus etc. towards Qibla.
  6. To talk of worldly things without cause.
  7. To waste water unnecessary.
  8. To use so little water so that all or some of the Sunnats would be missed.
  9. To wash the face with one hand.
  10. To throw water on the face.
  11. To let ablution water drops on clothing or inside the mosque.
  12. To miss any Sunnat of ablution.

Aspects that break the Ablution

  1. Excretion of stools
  2. Urinate
  3. To break wind from behind
  4. For worms or stones to be excreted from the front or rear.
  5. For the leaking of semen water or sperm.
  6. For blood, puss to be released and for it to flow from it's position.
  7. For a mouthful of vomiting of food or water, or a slight amount of vomit of blood.
  8. To become insane or to pass out
  9. To faint
  10. To be drunk or lost in control so much that the feet stagger
  11. Except for the Namaz-e-Janaaza, to laugh so loud that the person standing next to you can hear you.
  12. To go to sleep.
  13. Mubashart-e-Fahisha (meaning, for a man to touch a woman's private parts with his erected penis with lust or to touch another man's private parts with his erected penis, or for a woman to touch another woman's private parts with her private parts without a cloth in between these parts.

In all the above situations the ablution (Wuzu) will break.

  • Rule: If water is released from a hurting eye or puss that is released will break the Wuzu, and it is also an impurity and therefore if it touches an item of clothing, then it is necessary to clean.
  • Rule: To laugh in Namaz that only you hear it yourself and no-one near you hears the laughter or voice then the Wuzu has not broken, however, the Namaz will break.
  • Rule: If you smile in Namaz so that only your teeth show but no voice whatsoever is heard then neither the Wuzu or Namaz will break.
  • Rule: Whatever moisture that leaves a man's body but does not break the Wuzu is not an impurity. For example the blood that stays in it's position or vomit that is not a mouthful are all clean.
  • Rule: Saliva, spittle, sweat and dirt are not impurities and therefore clean (Pak). If these items are stuck on the body or clothing, then the Namaz will count but you should have them cleaned as this is better.
  • Rule: The tears that come out due to crying do not break the Wuzu nor are they an impurity.
  • Rule: By showing your knees or body, or to look at your own or someone else's body or touch someone's body does not break the Wuzu.
  • Rule: If a milk drinking child vomited and if it is a mouthful then it is an impurity. If it touches something and is more than a Dirham (approx, size of a fifty pence piece) then it will make it impure. If the milk had not gone all the way in the stomach but had come back out from the throat then it is clean.
  • Rule: Whilst in the middle of performing Wuzu it breaks then perform the Wuzu again, and if the water that is held in the palm of the hand and you release wind then this water is useless and do not use it to wash any parts.

Method Of Bathing

The method of bathing is as follows;

  • Perform the intention of bathing (Ghusl) then first of all wash the hands upto the wrists three times.
  • Then wash the private parts, whether there is any impurity stuck on them or not.
  • Then wash any part of the body which has impurity stuck on it.
  • Then perform Wuzu as performed in Namaz but do not wash the feet. However, if you are sat on a stool or a stone etc. then wash the feet also.
  • Then rub water into the body as you would rub oil.
  • Then wash the right hand shoulder three times.
  • Then wash the left hand shoulder three times.
  • Then wash the head and all of the body three times.
  • Then move away from the place of bathing and if you did not wash the feet when performing Wuzu, wash them now.

Do not face the Qibia when bathing. Ensure that you rub your hands with water all over the body whilst scrubbing. Do not bathe where someone can see you. If this is not possible then it is necessary for you to cover the body from the navel to the knees (for men). If this is not possible then perform Tayammum (see later text). Do not talk when bathing or pray any prayers. After bathing, to dry the body with a towel is perfectly allowed.

  • Rule: To bath naked in a careful hidden place (where no-one can see) is allowed. It is very important that women are very careful of this. After bathing wear clothes as soon as possible. Whatever aspects are Sunnat and Mustahhab in Wuzu are also the same in bathing except, if you are bathing naked then do not face Qibia and if you are wearing a cloth then there is no problem. There are three obligatory aspects in the method of bathing that has been shown, without which the bathing will not count and one will remain unclean and the rest are either Sunnat or Mustahhab and should not be left out. but if they are left out the bath will still count.

Three obligatory aspects of bathing

There are three obligatory aspects in bathing, and are as follows;

  1. To perform mouthwash so that every single part of the inside of the mouth from the beginning of the lips upto the throat is cleaned with water. Water must reach the gaps between the teeth, the gums, all the sides of the tongue and the edge of the throat. If you are not fasting then you must gargle so that the water reaches clearly all parts. If there is anything stuck in the teeth (like strands of meat. the skin of a betel nut, the leaf of a paan etc.) then unless is impossible to release or would cause serious pain it is necessary that they are removed, because without doing this the bath won't count and therefore the Namaz won't count.
  2. To clean the nose out with water. Meaning to suck up water into both nostrils until it reaches the bone, so that not even a hair or it's equivalent size remains dry, otherwise the bath will not count. If the nose is pierced then the water must reach the hole as this is also necessary. If mucus has dried in the nose then to release it is necessary and to wash the nostril hair is also necessary.
  3. To wash every single part of the body. Meaning to make sure water washes all the body upto and including the soles of the feet, ensuring that every hair and every pimple is washed, because even if only one hair or it's point's equivalent remains dry, the bath will not count.

Notice: A lot of people bathe by wearing an unclean cloth and think by bathing they will become clean and at the same time wash the cloth that they are wearing. This is not the case because when they rub their hands on it they actually spread the impurity all over and therefore make the whole body, cloth and the container of water unclean. This is why before bathing it is important to wash the impurity stuck on the body or on the clothing, otherwise they won't clean the body but in fact make everything that they touch unclean. This is possible if they are bathing in a river or sea and the impurity is such that it will flow away without the need for rubbing or scrubbing, if this is not so then it will remain a problem.

What aspects makes it obligatory to bathe

There are five aspects that make it obligatory for a person to have a bath, and they are as follows; -

  1. The ejaculation of sperm from it's place with lust.
  2. To have a wet dream. Meaning nocturnal emission that is the releasing of sperm whilst sleeping.
  3. The head of the penis to enter the vagina, whether it be with or without lust, with or without orgasm, the bathing would be obligatory on both.
  4. To become clean from menstrual pause (period).
  5. To become clean from blood after child birth.
  • Rule: If sperm was ejaculated from it's place but not due to lust, i.e. it was done by lifting a heavy load or falling from a height, then to bathe is not obligatory, however, the Wuzu is broken.
  • Rule: If semen dropped but was very thin and it came out whilst urinating or on it's own accord without lust then the bath does not become necessary but the Wuzu will break.
  • Rule: To bathe on Fridays, Eid days, on the day of Arafah (9th Zil Hajj) or when wearing the Ehraam is Sunnat.

Things that can and cannot be done when bathing is obligatory

  • Rule: It is strictly forbidden to enter a mosque, to perform Tawaf (of Kaa'ba), to touch the Holy Quran, or any part of the Quran whether it is in sections or volumes [Hadiya, Alamgiri], to pray the Quran whilst viewing it without touching it, to pray the Quran verbally, to wear or touch a ring with a word of the Quran written on it when it is obligatory for you to bathe. Rule: If the Holy Quran is wrapped in it's cloth (Juzdaan) or has a napkin wrapped around it. then there is no problem touching it without bathing [Hadiya, Hindiya]. If a verse of the Quran is prayed but the intention was not to pray as part of the Holy Quran, then there is problem. For example, to say Bismilla Hirrahma Nirrahim' for auspisciousness, or to say 'Alhamdo Lillahe Rabbil Aalameen' for thankfulness or to pray when in trouble or worried 'Inna Lillahe Wa Inna llahi Raji'oon' or for praise the Surah Fatiha was prayed or AayatuI Qursi was prayed or another verse was prayed, however, the intention was not to pray a verse of the Quran, then there is no problem [Hindiya etc.].
  • Rule: To touch the Holy Quran or any verse of the Quran without ablution (but not in need to bathe) is forbidden, however to pray it verbally is no problem.
  • Rule: To see the Holy Quran . whether the words are seen and then prayed in the heart is allowed in any situation.
  • Rule: To touch the Fiqha, Hadith or Tafseer books is Makrooh.

Which wafer is allowed to bathe or perform ablution and which is not

Rainwater, sea water, ocean water, river water, stream water, canal water, well water, large pool or large lake or flowing water, snow and hailstone water is all allowed to be used to bathe or perform ablution or to clean impurities.

The rules and clarification of flowing water

The clarification of flowing water is the water that flows a piece of straw, this water is clean and can clean other things. The water will not become impure if some impurity is added in it, so as long as the water's colour, smell and taste does not change. If the colour, smell or taste is changed by the impurity then the water has become impure (napak). This water will now only become clean when the impurity reaches the bottom of the waterbed and all three aspects are reverted back to it's normal situation. Otherwise, there is more water added in which would flow the impurity away and/or change the colour, smell and taste back to normal. If the clean addition has changed the colour, smell and taste then you can perform Wuzu or Ghusl (ablution or bath) until the clean addition changes to impurity.
 

The rule and clarification of a large pool

Ten arms in length and ten arms in width where water is held in known as a 'Dadarda' or large pool. It is still counted if the length is twenty arms in length and five arms in width, or it is twenty five arms in length and four arms in width, meaning it is at least twenty arms square in total. If the pool is circular then it must be approximately thirty five arms in diameter and it does not have any part of the ground above water in that diameter, this is also counted as a large pool. It will not become impure by having impurities added in, until the colour, smell or taste does not change due to the impurity.

  • Rule: If an impurity falls in a large pool that cannot be seen, e.g. alcohol, urine, etc. then you can perform ablution from wherever you want. If an impurity falls in that can be seen, e.g. stools, dead animal etc. then it is better to perform ablution away from where the impurity is.
    Rule: Many people can perform ablution together in a large pool, even though the used water is falling back in. However, mucus, phlegm, spittle should not be added back in the water as it is against purity.
     

Rule of used water

The water that has fallen from performing ablution or bath is clean but is not allowed to be used to perform ablution or bath.

  • Rule: If a person who has not performed ablution, dips his hand or finger or fingernail or any part of the body which is washed in ablution, whether purposely or by mistake, in a tub of water which is less then a large pool (Dadarda) then that water cannot be used to perform ablution or bath. In the same way, if a person is in need of having a bath and any part of his body touches the water purposely or by mistake, then that water cannot be used to perform a bath or ablution. If the part of the body or hand has been washed, then there is no problem.

Advice on making use of the used water

If a hand is put into the water or you want to use the used water then the way of re-using it again is-to add fresh clean water more than the amount of water that is held in the container or to add clean water at one side so that the used water is flowed away, then you can use the new water to have a bath or perform ablution. If water is held in small pots and you are unaware of any impurities added in them, then ablution is allowed.

  • Rule: If an infidel informs you that this water is clean or unclean, the water will remain clean as this was it's original situation.
  • Rule: Ablution cannot be performed with water squeezed from a branch of a tree or fruit water, such as water from a melon or mango or sugarcane.
  • Rule: If a small amount of a clean item is added to water, such as a rose, jasmine, saffron, soil or sand then it is allowed to use the water to have a bath.
  • Rule: If such colour or saffron is added to water so much that the due to the colour the clothes would change to that colour, then it is not allowed to perform ablution or have a bath with this water.
  • Rule: If milk is added to water and the colour of the water changes to the colour of the milk, then it is not allowed to perform ablution or have a bath with this water.

Water of a well.
(This section has been left out as it is not deemed necessary to learn this knowledge in this day and age and in these countries, such as UK America, Africa etc.)
 

IMPURITIES

Rules of impurity Ghaliza

There are two type of impurities, Ghaliza and Khafifa. If impurity Ghaliza gets on your clothes and is more in size than a Dirham (fifty pence piece), then to clean it is compulsory, without cleaning it your Namaz will not count. If the impurity on your clothes is the same size as a Dirham, then to clean it is necessary (Wajib) and therefore if Namaz is prayed, you must repeat it as the Namaz is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and to pray it again is Wajib. If the impurity is less in size than a Dirham, then to clean it is Sunnat and if Namaz is prayed, it will count but is against the Sunnat and to repeat it is better.

  • Rule: If the impurity is solid such as stools, dung, excrement etc. then the measure of a Dirham is in weight, if the impurity is liquid such as urine, alcohol etc. then the measurement of a Dirham is in length and width. According to Shariat the weight of a Dirham in this text is four and a half grammes and in the text of Zakat is three and a fifth grammes. The size in length and width of a Dirham according to Shariat is the inside of a palm (and therefore approx. size of a fifty pence piece) [Durr-e^Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat}.

Rules of impurity Khafifa

Whatever part of clothing impurity Khafifa gets stuck to (e.g. sleeve, collar, trouser leg'etc.) or part of the body (e.g. hand, arm, leg etc.) and if it is less than a quarter of the whole item. then the Namaz will count. If it is more than a quarter than the item, then without washing it the Namaz will not count [Alamgiri etc.].

  • Rule: The difference of impurity Ghaliza and Khafifa is when it gets stuck on clothing or the body. However, if an impurity, whether Ghaliza or Khafifa is added to a liquid such as water, vinegar, milk etc. then even if one drop is added the whole content becomes impure, as long as it is not a Dadarda (large pool).

What items are impurity Ghaliza

Whatever item is discharged from a person's body that would break the Wuzu or Ghusl is impurity Ghaliza. Such as faeces, urine, flowing blood, puss, mouthful vomit, blood from menstrual pause, blood from childbirth, blood discharge, sperm, semen (thin), water from a hurting eye, navel or stomach water-which comes out due to pain, flowing blood from any land animal whether Haram or Hala! including small reptiles blood such as lizards, fat of a dead animal, meat of a dead animal and any faeces or urine of a Haram four legged animal such as dog, cat, tiger, cheetah, vulture, fox, wolf, donkey, ass, elephant, pig and horse dung etc. Also faeces of any Halal four legged animal such as cow or buffalo dung, goat, camel, white antelope, stag, deer dung. also dung of those birds who do not fly high such as chicken, duck, whether they are large or small. Any type of alcohol or juice that would make someone lose their sense. Also faeces and urine of a snake and also meat of a wild snake and a wild frog who has flowing blood and whether they have been slaughtered and their skin whether it has been boiled. Also meat of a pig and it's bones, skin and hair whether it has been slaughtered. All of the above is impurity Ghaliza [Alamgiri etc.].

  • Rule: The urine of a milk drinking child male or female is impurity Ghaliza. The fact that is commonly known that the urine of a milk drinking child is clean is totally wrong [Qazi Khan, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If a distressed lion cub vomited milk and it was a mouthful, then it is impurity Ghaliza.
  • Rule: The blood of a lizard or chameleon is impurity Ghaliza.
  • Rule: An elephant's trunks phlegm is impurity Ghaliza. The saliva of beasts such as dogs, cheetah and other four legged beasts is impurity Ghaliza [Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: If impurity Ghaliza mixes with impurity Khafifa. then all of it becomes Ghaliza.
  • Rule: If there are various drops of impurity Ghaliza on a piece of clothing and individually it does not amount to a Dirham, however, when collated together it is the same size or more than a Dirham then the rule of a Dirham applies. The same rule applies to impurity Khafifa.

What items are impurity Khafifa

Whatever animal's meat is Halal, such as a cow, bull, buffalo, ram, goat, camel, white antelope etc. their urine and a horse's urine is impurity Khafifa. Also those bird's meat which is Haram (whether it be a bird of prey) such as crow, eagle, falcon, hawk etc. their droppings is impurity Khafifa [Hindiya etc.]. Milk of Haram animals is impurity Khafifa, however, milk of a female horse is clean but is not allowable for drinking [Bahar-e-Shariat]. The Halal birds that fly high such as, pigeon, dove, starling, water fowl, geese etc. their droppings are not impure.

  • Rule: The droppings and urine of a bat are both clean [Radd'ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: The blood of fish and animals of water and small mites and mosquitoes is clean [Hindiya etc.].
  • Rule: If very small droplets of urine like the size of a pinpoint get on your clothes or body, then they will remain clean [Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: If the clothing has them sort of small droplets and then it drops into water, the water will remain clean [Bahar-e-ShariatJ.
  • Rule: If blood comes out due to injury but stays in it's spot and does not flow, then it is clean [Bazaziya, Qazi Khan]. The blood that has remained in the meat, spleen and liver is clean and if these items are mixed in flowing blood then it is impure and will need to be washed before making it clean [Hindiya, Bazaziya etc.].
  • Rule: If you are praying Namaz and there is a bottle in your pocket containing urine, alcohol, blood, then the Namaz will not count [Minya etc.]. If you have an egg in your pocket whilst praying Namaz and whether the inside of the egg is turning into blood the Namaz will count {Minya etc.].
  • Rule: If after performing excretion or urinating you clean the parts with a handful of sand etc. and then you perspire sweat and the clothing gets wet. they will not be unclean [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If the smoke from impurities gets on your clothes, they will not become unclean [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
  • Rule: The mud in the path is clean as long as you are not aware of any impurities being in it and if Namaz is prayed with this mud on your clothes or feet, it will count, but it is better to clean it off [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If water is passing in a stream on the pathway and some of it splashes on your clothes, the clothes will not be impure, however, it is better to clean them [Bahar-e-Shariat].

 

FOOD LEFTOVERS AND PERSPIRATION (SWEAT)

Rule: Who's leftovers are clean ?

Human's leftovers (whether they are need of bathing or a woman who is on her menstrual cycle or still bleeding after childbirth) are clean [Khaniya, Hindiya).

  • Rule: The leftovers of infidels is also clean, however, you should refrain from it. In the same way, mucus, phlegm. saliva are also clean but people should avoid contact with them. You should believe it belongs to a very bad infidel [Hindiya etc.].
  • Rule:The animals whose meat can be eaten, whether they be four legged or birds, their leftovers are clean, for example, cow, buffalo, bull, goat, pigeon, pheasant etc.
  • Rule: The chickens which are free range and therefore can peck impurities, their leftovers are Makrooh (disliked), and if they are caged, then their leftovers are clean.
  • Rule: The leftovers of a horse are clean [Hindiya etc.].
  • Rule: The animals whose leftovers are impure are, pig, dog, tiger, cheetah, wolf, elephant, vulture and other carnivorous animals [Hindiya, Khaniya].
  • Rule: Animals that live in the house such as cats, mice, snakes, lizards etc. their leftovers are Makrooh [Khaniya, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Leftovers of species that live in the water are clean, whether their birth was in or out of the water.
  • Rule: The leftovers of birds of prey such as eagle, falcon, owl etc. are Makrooh.
  • Rule: The leftovers of a crow are Makrooh [Bahar].
  • Rule: If an eagle, falcon, hawk or owl are kept as a pet and used for hunting and you are aware that there is no impurity stuck in their beak, then their leftovers are clean.
  • Rule: The leftovers of donkeys and ass is doubtful and therefore water cannot be used to perform Wuzu.
  • Rule: If leftover water is clean then you can use it to perform ablution or have a bath, however, if a person whom it is obligatory to have a bath, drinks water without first cleaning his mouth, then Wuzu is not allowed with that leftover water because the water has been infected.
  • Rule: Whilst there is clean water available, it is Makrooh to use Makrooh water, however, if the only water available is the Makrooh water, then there is no harm. To eat Makrooh leftovers for a rich person it is Makrooh, for a poor person who has no choice, there is no harm. Whilst there is clean water available, it is not allowed to use doubtful water, and if the only water available is the doubtful water then you should use it for ablution or bathing and also perform Tayammum. In this situation it is necessary to make the intention of water and Tayammum, as an intention for just water or just Tayammum would not be sufficient.
  • Rule: You should not eat doubtful food or water.
  • Rule: If doubtful water is mixed with clean water, and if the clean water is more in quantity then it is allowed to be used for bathing and if it is less in quantity, then it is not.
  • Rule: Those who's leftovers are impure, their sweat and saliva is also impure. Those who's leftovers are clean, their sweat and saliva is also clean. Those who's leftovers are Makrooh, their sweat and saliva is also Makrooh.
  • Rule: If the sweat of a donkey or mule gets on your clothes, they will remain clean regardless of the quantity.

 

TAYAMMUM

If you have not performed ablution or in need of a bath but do not have access to water, the you must perform Tayammum. There are a few situations for not having access to water.

You have such an illness, that by using water to perform ablution or have a bath it will make the illness worse or would delay the recovery, and this is not just an assumption but you are sure about it. Either you have tried and found out about it or a pious Muslim doctor has given you this advice, then Tayammum is allowed.

  • Rule: If it is just an assumption that the illness will get worse or a wrongdoer, infidel or non qualified doctor has advised you then Tayammum is not allowed.
  • Rule: If the illness gets worse due to using cold water, but is okay when using warm water, then you must use warm water to perform ablution or have a bath because Tayammum is not allowed. However, if you cannot get warm water then you can perform Tayammum. Also if it is the case that during cold times the illness gets worse but is fine during warm times, then perform Tayammum in the cold times and when the warm time comes, perform ablution or have a bath with water in readiness for the cold times. Whatever Namaz has been prayed whilst with the Tayammum is not necessary to be repeated.
  • Rule: If by pouring water over the head affects the illness, then bath with water below the neck and perform Masah for all of the head.
  • Rule: If there is a particular part of the body which is affected when using water, then perform Masah over that part and wash the rest of the body with water.
  • Rule: If a particular part is affected even by performing Masah, then put a piece of cloth over it and perform Masah over the cloth.
  • Rule: All the corners of the wound where water will not have an affect must be washed as this is obligatory and also lift any bandage or the corners, however, if by lifting the bandage it will affect the wound then perform Masah over the wound.

 

  1. Where there is no sign or knowledge of water for a full square mile the Tayammum is allowed.
    • Rule: If there is a thought that there is water within a mile, then you must search for it as Tayammum is not allowed. If you did not search for water and performed Tayammum and then prayed Namaz, later you found water then you must pray the Namaz again after performing ablution. If however, you did not find water then the Namaz will count.
    • Rule: If you are praying Namaz and you see someone with water and think that if you asked them they would give you the water, then you must break the Namaz and ask for the water.
  2. The weather is so cold and you are truly confident that by bathing you will either die or get ill and you have no medicine available that will cure your cold, then Tayammum is allowed.
  3. You have the fear of an enemy that if they see you they will kill you or steal your possessions or you owe them money and are poor and they will get you imprisoned, the Tayammum is allowed. You see a snake near the water and fear that it will bite you, or you see a tiger and fear that it will maul you, or there is a bad person there who will rape you then Tayammum is allowed.
  4. You are in a jungle and have no bucket and rope that you can collect the water, then the Tayammum is allowed.
  5. You are thirsty and have water but are aware that if you use it for performing ablution or having a bath, you will suffer with thirst or you have an animal with (whether it be a dog which you are not allowed to keep) and are aware that it will suffer thirst or after some time, and your journey is a long one without knowledge that water may be available later, then Tayammum is allowed.
    • Rule: You have water but require it to mix flour for food then Tayammum is allowed. If water is required to make a soup, then Tayammum is not allowed.
    • Rule: You have stuck either on your body or clothing some impurity and is obligatory for you to clean, you only have enough water to either clean the impurity or perform ablution, then you must first clean the impurity and then perform Tayammum. If Tayammum is performed before it will not count and after cleaning the impurity you must perform Tayammum again.
  6. The water to purchase is expensive. Meaning whatever the going price is the seller is asking for twice as much then Tayammum is allowed. However, if there is not a big difference, meaning less than double then Tayammum is not allowed.
  7. If by searching for water you will get lost from your group or you will miss your train, then Tayammum is allowed.
  8. You are in doubt that if you perform ablution with water you will miss the Eid Namaz either the imam will perform Salaam or the time will reach midday, then Tayammum is allowed in both situations.
    • Rule: If you think that by performing ablution with water your time for praying the latter Sunnats of Zohr, Maghrib. Isha or Ju'ma will go or your time for the Namaz of Chast will be missed, then perform Tayammum and pray them
  9. If you are not the organiser of a funeral procession and fear that if you wait to perform ablution you will miss the Janaza Namaz the Tayammum is allowed.
    • Rule: You have gone to sleep inside a mosque and then are in need of having a bath (bathing has become obligatory for you e.g. had a wet dream) then perform Tayammum and come out of the mosque, to delay is Haram.
    • Rule: It is not allowed to perform Tayammum to touch the Quran or perform Sijdah-e-Tilawat or Sijdah-e-Shukr when access to water is available.
    • Rule: The time is so short that if you perform ablution or have a bath the Namaz will become Qaza, then perform Tayammum and pray the Namaz and after have a bath or perform ablution and repeat the Namaz as this is necessary.
    • Rule: A women has become clean from her menstrual cycle or childbirth bleeding and has no access to water, then perform Tayammum.
    • Rule: You have only enough water to perform ablution, however, you are in obligation to have a bath, then perform ablution with the water and perform Tayammum for bathing.

     

The method of Tayammum

After making the intention of Tayammum, say 'Bismillahirrahma Nirrahim' and press both hands on to the ground which contains items of pure substance. If a lot of substance gets stuck on the hands then hit the hands together so the excess is shaken off. Then with these hands wipe over the whole face. Repeat the action again and wipe over both arms from the fingernails to and including the elbows, and this is' the Tayammum completed. The wiping of the head and feet are not performed in Tayammum. There are only three aspects which are obligatory in Tayammum, the rest are Sunnat,

Obligatory (Farz) aspects in Tayammum

  1. To make the intention. Meaning to have the intention of performing ablution or bath or both to gain cleanliness. If the intention of Tayammum is made after hitting the hands on the ground, then the Tayammum will not count. The intention of Tayammum in the heart is obligatory (Farz), also it is better to say it with the tongue. For example, Say "I am performing Tayammum to rid of the impurities of being without bathing or being without ablution so that my Namaz will be allowed" then say 'Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim' and hit the hands on the soil.
  2. To rub your hands all over the face so that no hair or skin will remain untouched, otherwise the Tayammum will not count.
  3. To rub your hands over both arms including the elbows. If any part is left untouched then the Tayammum will not count.
  • Rule: It is necessary to rub your hands over the hair of the beard or mouchtache or eyebrows.
  • Rule: The same area is applicable as when performing ablution, except Tayammum is not done inside the mouth. Whatever lips show after closing the mouth must be rubbed.
  • Rule: When hitting the hands ensure that they are not clapped. The way to do this is put one thumb over another thumb and Join both hands together so that the excess drops off.
  • Rule: If the soil has not reached between the fingers then it is obligatory to run the fingers between each other (Khala) otherwise it is Sunnat. The same applies to the beard hair.
  • Rule: If in one Tayammum the intention of both a bath and ablution is made. then this is sufficient as the Tayammum for both will be accepted.
  • Rule: The Tayammum of a bath and an ablution is done in the same way.

Materials that can and cannot be used for Tayammum

Tayammum can be done with material which is from the earth, and whatever is not from the earth cannot be used to perform Tayammum.

  • Rule: Whatever material that cannot be changed or melted or softened by burning is from the material of the earth and can be used to perform Tayammum. Therefore soil, dust, sand, lime, antimony, sulphate, brimstone, slate, brick dust, stone, jasper, turquoise, carnelian, emerald and other precious stones etc, can all be used to perform Tayammum even if they do not have dust on them.
  • Rule: It is necessary that whatever material is used for Tayammum that it is clean, meaning from impurities or has had impurities on it.
  • Rule: Whatever item has had impurity dried on it and has no more effect of the impurity left still cannot be used to perform Tayammum, however can be used to pray Namaz on.
  • Rule: If there is suspicion that it may have been impure at one time is unnecessary and therefore has no effect.
  • Rule: You cannot perform Tayammum with ashes.
  • Rule: If ashes are mixed in with earth and there is more earth, then Tayammum is allowed, otherwise not.
  • Rule: Tayammum is allowed with wet soil as long as the soil has overcome with water.
  • Rule: If a piece of wood or clothing has so much dust on it that when putting the hand on it, it makes a mark the Tayammum is allowed.
  • Rule: Tayammum is allowed by using a cemented wall [Bahar-e-Shariat etc.].
  • Rule: Baked Brick is allowed to be used for Tayammum [Bahar-e'Shariat etc.]
  • Rule: Tayammum is allowed when the earth or stone turns black from fire. Also if stone turns into ash then Tayammum is still allowed.


Actions that break Tayammum

Whatever actions break the ablution or make bathing necessary also break the Tayammum. The additional aspect is to have power over water again will also break the Tayammum.

  • Rule: If you past a position where water is available within a mile then the Tayammum will break as it is not necessary to actually reach the water, however, if you were asleep when you went past the position, then the need for Tayammum will not break.
  • Rule: If an ill person performed Tayammum instead of bathing but is now much healthier that if he did have a bath with water it would not harm him, then the Tayammum will break.
  • Rule: If you found enough water that you could wash the parts that are obligatory in ablution once each, then the Tayammum will break and if the water is less than that, then it won't break. The same applies if you found enough water to perform the obligatory aspects of bathing once then the Tayammum of bathing will break, otherwise not.
  • Rule: If you performed one Tayammum for both bathing and ablution and then you performed an act that would break the ablution or you find enough water so that you can perform ablution or you become well from illness that if you performed ablution it would not harm you, then the Tayammum allowed for ablution will go but the Tayammum allowed for bathing will remain.

WIPING OVER SPECIAL SOCKS CALLED KHUF

If someone is wearing special socks they would therefore when they perform Wuzu, do not wash their feet but in fact just wipe their wet fingers over the Khuf then this is allowed.

  • Rule: If bathing is obligatory for you. then you cannot perform Masah (wipe) over the Khaf.

There are a few qualifications for performing Masah;

  1. The Khuf are long enough that the ankles are covered. If they are a few fingers short but the heel is covered, then the Masah is allowed.
  2. They are stuck to the feet, so that when wearing them you can walk freely.
  3. They are made from leather or at least the sole is made from leather and the rest made from other thick coated material.
    • Rule: The socks worn in India (and UK etc) which are made from either cotton or wool cannot be wiped over, it is obligatory to take them off and wash the feet.
  4. They must be put on after performing Wuzu. Meaning if you put them on and had not performed Wuzu, then you must take them off when you perform Wuzu.
    • Rule: If they are worn after performing Tayammum, then to wipe over them is not allowed.
  5. They must not be worn when bathing is obligatory on you, or wear them and then bathing becomes obligatory for you.
  6. They must be worn only for a maximum fixed time, and this is for a non-traveller one day and one night (24 hours) and for a traveller three days and three nights (72 hours).
    • Rule: From when the first time the Wuzu breaks the time starts. For example after performing Wuzu you wear the Khuf and then your Wuzu breaks at Zohar time, the twenty four hours would start from then. I.e. for a non-traveller the next day Zohar would be the full time and for a traveller the fourth day Zohar.
  7. They must not be ripped more than the feet's three small toes in size or when walking open more than that gap.
    • Rule: If the Khuf were ripped or the seam opened but three fingers could not be seen, however, when walking more than three fingers could be seen then the wiping over them is not allowed. Meaning that in a ripped Khuf if more than three fingers can be seen then wiping (Masah) is not allowed otherwise it is.
    • Rule: It doesn't matter much if the Khuf has a ripped part which is over the ankles. The measurement of ripping is from below the ankles.


Method of performing Masah (wiping) over Khuf

The method of performing Masah (wiping) over the Khuf is to stretch the right hand and wet three small fingers and from the start of the top of the Khuf from the toes and wipe and it is Sunnat to go upto the shins. Perform the same for the left Khuf.

There are two (Farz) obligatory aspects in performing Masah over the Khuf;

  1. Every Khufs Masah must be at least the same size as the three small fingers.
  2. The Masah must be on top of the Khuf.

There are three Sunnats in performing Masah,

  1. To use the hands three finger's full length.
  2. To stretch the fingers and wipe all the way upto the sh'ns.
  3. When performing the Masah keep the fingers stretched apart.
  • Rule: It is allowed to perform Masah over English style leather boots if the ankles are covered [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: It is not allowed to perform Masah over the Amama (turban), the Burkha and Naqab (veil).


What aspects breaks the Masah over the Khuf

The actions that break the Masah(wiping) over the Khuf are as follows;

  • Whatever actions break Wuzu also break the Masah.
  • The Masah will finish as soon as the time has finished. In this situation it is sufficient to just wash the feet rather than perform whole of the ablution again.
  • If you take the Khuf off, then the Masah breaks, whether you may have only taken one off.

Rule: If you have a wound or corn or any other illness on parts the Wuzu that need to be washed and if by flowing water on them it will cause you problems then lightly perform Masah over them. If this is not possible then put a piece of cloth over the wound and perform Masah over this, if this cannot be done then it is forgiven and can be left out. If you have medicine on the wound then it is not necessary to clean out the medicine, just flowing water over it would be sufficient.
 

MENSTRUATION - PERIOD

What is menstruation ?

After a female becoming a teenager, the blood that comes out from the vagina on a fixed time basis and is not due to childbirth or illness, is known as menstruation or period (Haiz). If the blood is due to illness then it is known as Istihaza, if it is due to childbirth then it is known as Nifas.

  • Rule: The time for menstruation is at least three days and three nights, meaning a full seventy two hours, if it is less by even a minute it is not menstruation, and the maximum is ten days and ten nights.
  • Rule: If the blood stops just less than seventy two hours then it is not a period but Istihaza. However, if the period started from sunrise and finished on sunrise three days later, then this will be recognised as a period, otherwise any other starting time is measured as one day being twenty four hours [Bahar-e-ShariatJ.
  • Rule: If the blood came for more than ten days. then if this is the first instance that blood has come, then for the ten days it is menstruation and the rest it is Istihaza. If you have had a period before and the time was usually less than ten days, then whatever the time it used to come for is menstruation and the rest is Istihaza. For example, if the usual time for menstruation is five days and this time the blood has come for ten days then it is all recognised as menstruation and if it has come for twelve days, then the first five days is menstruation and the other seven is Istihaza. If there is not a regular pattern, meaning that sometimes the blood comes for four days sometimes for five, then whatever amount of days was the last period, this will be counted on this occasion.
  • Rule: It is not necessary that blood continues coming all the time, if it starts and stops for them days it is still recognised as menstruation.

Age when menstruation begins

The age of the menstruation cycle beginning is at least nine and the finishing age is fifty-five. The female is known in this age is called 'Aa'is' and this age is called 'Sun'aayas'[Alamgiri].

  • Rule: If blood comes before the age of nine, then it is Istihaza. In the same way if blood comes after the age of fifty-five then it is also Istihaza. However, if blood comes regularly as it did before the age of fifty -five and is the same colour then it is menstruation.
  • Rule: If a pregnant woman has blood, then this is istihaza. Also whilst having childbirth as long as the child has not come out more than half way then this is Istihaza.
  • Rule: There must be a gap of at least fifteen days between two periods and also between Nifas (childbirth blood) and a period there must be at least fifteen days gap. If a person finishes her Nifas and it has been less than fifteen days before blood appears, then this is not Haiz but Istihaza.
  • Rule: Menstruation will be recognised when blood comes out of the opening of the vagina. If a piece of cloth is stuck so that the blood does not come down but remains stuck inside. then until the cloth is removed it will not be recognised that the period has started, she will pray Namaz, keep Roza.

Colour of menstruation

  • Rule: There are six colours of menstruation, black, red green, yellow, brown and clayey. The white discharge is not menstruation.
  • Rule: If there is the slightest dirtiness in white discharge within he ten day hen this is menstruation. If their is dirtiness remaining in the white Discharge after ten days then for a Person who has a habit of five days then the five days is menstruation and the rest is lstihaza if the total goes over ten days. If the person does not have a fixed time habit then upto the ten days is menstruation and anything over is Istihaza.
  • Rule: If a woman never in all her lifetime had menstruation or was only ever less than three days and night then she will remain clean. If a woman only ever had menstruation for three days and night once and then never had bleeding then except for the one instance she is always clean.

NIFAS - MEANING BLOOD AFTER CHILDBIRTH

Definition of Nifas and time Nifas meaning the blood discharged by a woman after childbirth. It has no minimum time, meaning even if one drop of blood comes out from when the child has half come out then this is Nias. The maximum time for Nifas is forty days and nights.

  • Rule: The recognition of Nifas is from when the child has half come out.
  • Rule: If blood comes out for a woman more than forty days then if this is their first child or she cannot remember how long the blood came from a previous childbirth, then in both situation the full forty days and nights is Nifas and the rest is Istihaza. If the woman can remember the length of the last Nifas bleeding then upto them days is Nifas and anything over them days (as long as the total goes over forty days) is Istihaza. For example, if someone's habit for Nifas is thirty days and this time the bleeding was for forty-five days then the thirty days is Nifas and the rest is Istihaza.
  • Rule: Before the delivery of the pregnancy, if blood comes, then it is Istihaza until the child is half born,
  • Rule: If some blood comes before the delivery of the pregnancy then it is Istihaza and if some blood comes after then this is Nifas. this is as long as their has been some parts of the child's body being created otherwise if it is the menstrual cycle, then it is so, otherwise it is istihaza.
  • Rule: If blood sometimes come and sometimes it doesn't as long as It Is all within the forty days it is Nifas, whether the gap Is longer than fifteen days or not.
  • Rule: The order for the colours of Nifas is the same as mentioned for the colours of Haiz.

Note: In this text, whenever the words childbirth are used it means from when the child has come out half way or more.

 

RULES OF HAIZ AND NIFAS

  • Rule: It is Haram to pray Namaz or to keep a fast (Roza) whilst in menstruation or bleeding after childbirth (Haiz or Nifas).
  • Rule:Namaz is forgiven in both these situations and there is no need to keep Qaza for the missed Namaz, However, it is obligatory to keep the Qaza of the missed Roza in both these situations.
  • Rule: During the times of Namaz, a woman should perform Wuzu and pray the Durood Sharif or some other prayer for the duration of the Namaz, so that she will remain in habit. For a woman on her period or during Nifas to pray the Quran whether by looking at it or off by heart, or to touch it whether the whole of it or part of it or a verse of it by the tips of the fingers or any other part of the body is all Haram [Hindiya etc.].
  • Rule: To touch a piece of paper with a verse of the Quran written on it is also Haram.
  • Rule: If the Holy Quran is wrapped in a cloth (Juzdan) then to hold the Juzdan is allowed [Hindiya].
  • Rule: The rules are the same in this situation for touching the Holy Quran or other religious books as it is for when bathing is obligatory for someone, this has been covered in the Ghusl section.
  • Rule: If the tutor has Haiz or Nifas then she should teach each verse whilst breaking it into parts (breathing in between the words), there is no problem in spelling.
  • Rule: It is Makrooh to pray Dua-e-Kunoot whilst in Haiz or Nifas.
  • Rule: Except for the Holy Quran all other recitations, submissions, Durood Sharif etc. is allowed without any problems,
    Smething is missing here in Wuzu and Namaz then she is not a Ma'zoor.
     

MA'ZOOR

All people who have a certain illness within a time, whereby with Wuzu they cannot pray full Namaz and the time passes but this illness does not stop, is known as a Ma'zoor. Meaning in all the time the illness did not stop so that they could perform Wuzu and pray Farz Namaz. The rule of a Ivla'zoor is that they perform Wuzu and can pray any Namaz within a Namaz time period and their Wuzu would not break due to that illness. For example, illnesses like continuous drops of urine, continuous releasing of wind from the back passage, releasing water from a hurting eye, releasing of puss from a wound or mole or water coming out of the ear or navel etc. these are all illnesses that break the Wuzu, and if a full Namaz time goes pass and after every effort the illness does not stop, therefore you cannot become clean from it and therefore cannot pray Namaz, then this has proven that you have an illness that cannot be stopped and therefore whilst this illness continues you are a Ma'zoor. For example, a time of Namaz has passed for a woman whereby Istihaza did not give her enough time that she could become clean from it and perform Wuzu and pray Farz Namaz. In the second Namaz time, she gains enough time to perform Wuzu but blood drops once or twice then she is still a Ma'zoor, because once an illness has been proven that it can't be stopped during one Namaz period but then does not continue to be causing a problem but sometimes in a second period it returns then the person will remain a Ma'zoor as it is not necessary for the illness (once proven) to continue all the time and break Wuzu For an illness to be proven it is necessary that one whole period passed without being free from the illness that causes Wuzu to break, then in the second period all the time is not necessary but once is sufficient for them to remain a Ma'zoor.

  • Rule: As soon as the time for Farz Namaz finishes the Wuzu of a Ma'zoor will also break. If Wuzu was performed for the Namaz of Asr, then it would break as soon as the sun sets. Also if Wuzu was performed after sunrise, then a Ma'zoor's Wuzu would remain until the end of Zohr time as there are no Farz Namaz in between this time.
  • Rule: A Wuzu for a Ma'zoor will not break with the illness only, this means it will still break with another fault that normally would break Wuzu. For example, if a person's illness is that they continue dropping urine, then if they released wind then their Wuzu would break or if their illness that they cannot stop releasing wind then their Wuzu would break if they had urine drops.
  • Rule: If there is any way that the illness would be reduced or would stop then this is obligatory. For example, if blood flows when standing up to pray Namaz but it stops when you sit down and pray, then it is obligatory to pray whilst seated.
  • Rule: If the Ma'zoor has an illness whereby his clothing will become impure and is more than a Dirham in size and he has enough time that he can wash the impure part and then pray Namaz, then it is obligatory for him to do this, and if he knows that whilst praying Namaz it will become impure by the same amount then it is not necessary for him to wash it, continue praying with these clothes even if the place where Namaz is being prayed also gets impure. If the impurity on the clothing is the same size as a Dirham and there is enough time for him to clean this and is also aware that the clothing will not get the same amount of impurity again whilst praying Namaz, then it is necessary (Wajib) for him to clean this. If the impurity is less than a Dirham and there is time, then it is Sunnat to clean it and if there is no time left, then in any situation it is forgiven.
  • Rule: If there is any discharge from a wound but does not flow then nor will it break the Wuzu, nor will you be a Ma'zoor due to it and nor is it impure.

 

METHOD OF CLEANING IMPURE ITEMS

There are two types of impure items. Firstly there is the item that is in itself impure which is known as impurity, such as, alcohol, faeces, urine, dung etc. these items until they keep to it's original form, they cannot be made clean. Alcohol will remain impure as long as it stays as alcohol, and if it is made into vinegar then it becomes clean. Cow dung will remain impure until it is burnt and turned into ashes, then it is clean [Muniya, etc.].

Secondly there is the item which is itself not impure, but due to having impurity stuck on it, it becomes impure, such as, a piece of clothing has had alcohol on it, the clothing is now impure. To clean these items there are various methods. Many will become clean after washing them, some will become clean after drying, some after shaking, some after burning, some after tanning and some after cutting.

  • Rule: You can clean impurity from items with clean water and any other clean liquid which would be able to clean it. Such as, vinegar, rose water, tea water, banana water etc.
  • Rule: Used water from Wuzu and Ghusl (ablution and bathing) can be used to clean impurities (this water is clean for cleaning but cannot be re-used to perform ablution or bathing).

Method of cleaning solid impurities

  • Rule: If impurity can be cleaned with saliva, then this method can be used. Such as, if a breast fed child vomited onto the breast, then drank milk again and the impurity was cleaned off, then the breast will be clean [Qazi Khan etc.].
  • Rule: Impurity cannot be cleaned with soup, milk, oil, because these liquids will not make the impurity go away.
  • Rule: If the impurity is thick, such as faeces, dung, blood etc. then there is no rule on how many times it should be washed, if it takes just once to wash it clean then this is sufficient, however, if it takes four or five times to clean then this must be done. If the impurity is cleaned off the first time it is Mustahhab to clean it three times.

The order on the colour or smell remaining after cleaning

  • Rule: If the impurity is cleaned off but there is still some smell, colour or a sign left, then it is important to clean this also. However, if it is very difficult to get rid of it's existence, then washing it three times will be sufficient, it is not necessary to wash it with soap, acid or hot water [Alamgiri, Maniya etc.]. If you put on an impure colour or impure henna on you body or clothes, then it is necessary to wash as many times as it takes for clean water to run off from it, it is not necessary for the colour to disappear [Alamgiri, Maniya etc.].

Method of cleaning liquid impurities

  • Rule: If you prepared saffron or some other die to colour your clothes and a child urinated in it or some other impurity dropped in it, then if you coloured the clothing with this, then wash it three times and it will become clean.
  • Rule: If impure oil got on your clothes or body, then wash it three times and it will become clean. If there is still the stickiness of the oil remaining, then it is not necessary to use soap or hot water to make it clean. However, if fat from a dead animal got on your clothes or body then until the stickiness goes, the body or clothing will not become clean [Muniya, Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If blood got on a knife or inside an animal's head and then this knife or animal's head was put into a fire and the blood was burnt, then both the knife and the head will become clean [Maniya, Bazazia].
     

Squeezing and it's limit

If the impurity is a liquid, then to wash it three times and also adequately squeeze the clothing three times will clean the item. To squeeze it adequately means that every person squeezes the item to their own strength and ability, so that if the item was squeezed again more drops would not fall. If you think of the clothing and do not squeeze it adequately, then the item will not become clean [Alamgiri, Qazi khan].

  • Rule: If the person who has washed the clothing squeezed it adequately, then another person came who had more strength than the first person and squeezes the clothing and more drops fall, then the item is still considered clean because the first person washed it not the second person as the second person's strength is not taken into account, however, if the second person washed it and only squeezed it with the same strength as the first person, then the item is not clean.
  • Rule: After squeezing the first two times it is better to also clean the hands and after squeezing the third time, both the clothing and hands are clean. If the clothing is still wet that even half a drop of water falls, then both the clothing and hands are unclean.
  • Rule: If clothing was washed the first and second time and the hands were not washed after this and the water drops from the hands fall on a clean part of the clothing, then the clean part will become impure. If after this, the clothing is wet after washing it the first time, then it must be washed twice, and if it gets wet after washing it twice with drops of water from the hand, then it must be washed once more and squeezed and if a clean part of clothing gets wet after the first wash and squeeze then it must be washed and squeezed twice more and if it gets wet after squeezing it twice then washing it once more and squeezing it will get the clothing clean.
  • Rule: Clothing is washed three times and is squeezed adequately three times and now it does not have any drops of water falling from it, then it is hung and some more water drops, this water is clean. If the clothing was not squeezed adequately and water dropped, then the water is not clean. The order for a milk drinking boy or girl is the same and that is if their urine got on clothing or the body then to wash it three times is necessary and only then will the clothing or body become clean [Alamgiri etc.].

Method of cleaning items that cannot be squeezed

  • Rule: The items that cannot be squeezed such as a leather table cloth, shoes, pans etc. should be washed and left to drip, and after all the water has dripped repeat the process again and then repeat it again for the third time and it will become clean. The same rule applies to clothing which is very fragile and would tear if squeezed.

Method of cleaning steel, copper and glassware products

  • Rule: If there are items where impurities do not dissolve in them, such as, glassware, dishes made from clay or pans or steel or copper etc. or items of metal etc. can be washed three times and they will become clean, it is not necessary to leave them between washes to drip dry.
  • Rule: It is better to scour impure dishes with soil.
  • Rule: If there is cooked leather and it gets an impurity on it, then if you can squeeze it, do so and if this is not possible then washing and leaving to drip dry between washes for three washes will get it clean [Alamgiri, Qazi khan].
  • Rule: Items of metal such as a knife, dagger, sword etc. which do not have a colour on them nor any design on the metal can be wiped clean if an impurity gets on them, and in this' situation if there is no difference to the impurity meaning either solid or liquid, such as silver, gold, or a small pot or false or proper metal, then all these items can be wiped clean, if however, there is a design on them or has rust on them then they must be washed, they will not become clean by wiping them.

Method of cleaning a mirror etc.

  • Rule: Items' such as a mirror, all items of glass, pots of glass, glazed pots, polished wood so as long as they are not porous can be cleaned by wiping them down properly so that no remains of impurities exist on them.
  • Rule: If the ground becomes dry and there was impurity and that has now disappeared then it is clean but you cannot perform Tayammum with it, however, you can pray Namaz on it [Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: If an items has been cleaned by drying or shaking and then gets wet again (with water) it will not become unclean again [Bazaziya}.

Method of cleaning hide

  • Rule: Except for pigskin all other types of hide become clean by making them up, whether it is cleaned with salty water or some other medicine or is just dried in the sun or wing or dust and all it's dripping and smell has gone, then in both situations the skin will become clean. You can pray Namaz on this [Hidaya, Shareh Waqaya, Alamgiri etc].
  • Rule: Except for the pig if any other animal whether Haram or Halal is slaughtered by saying 'Bismilla..' then it's meat and skin is clean. You can pray Namaz while having the meat on your possession and you can pray Namaz on the skin. However, a Haram animal after being slaughtered will not become Halal but will stay Haram, there is a difference between the meat being clean and the meat being Halal. Look, soil is clean and can be used to clean something, but unless it is vital to save your life it is Haram to eat [Maniya, Hadiya etc.].
  • Rule: Lead and tin become clean when melted [Alamgiri].

Method of cleaning honey

  • Rule: If honey becomes impure then the method of cleaning it is to add the same amount of water as honey and then to heat it until all the water burns out, perform this method three times and the honey will become clean.

Method of cleaning oil and butler

The method of cleaning oil if it becomes impure is to perform the same process as for the honey. There is also another method and that is to add the same amount of water as the oil and stir it well, then take out the oil and throw away the water, repeat this three times and the oil will become clean [Muniya, Alamgiri]. If butter or lard become impure then use one of the methods as above and the butter or lard will become clean.

  • Rule: If a piece of cloth is made up of two ply and if one ply gets an impurity on it, then if they are sown together, Namaz is not allowed on the other ply and if they are not sown together, then Namaz is allowed.
  • Rule: If a plank of wood gets an impurity on one side of it and is so large that it can be joined in size, then you can turn it over and pray on the other side of it [Muniya]. The ground that has been plastered with dung, whether the dung has dried Namaz cannot be prayed on it, however, if it has dried and a large cloth is put on it then you can pray Namaz on the cloth.

How are trees or walls. Herb roots, bricks cleaned ?

  • Rule: All trees, grass and bricks made from ground roots are clean when they dry up. If the bricks are not made from ground roots then it is necessary to wash it otherwise it will not be clean. Also if a tree or grass is cut before it becomes dry then it is also necessary to wash it for cleanliness [Alamgiri].

ISTINJA - WASHING OR CLEANING THE PRIVATE PARTS

Respects of Istinja

  • Rule:When performing excretion or urination or when washing, do not face towards Qibla nor have the Qibla behind you. Whether you are in the home or in a field, and if you do have your face or rear pointing towards the Qibla then change direction as soon as you remember as this may then be forgiven [Fatahul Qadir].
  • Rule: To have a child facing Qibla is Makrooh and the person making the child urinate is responsible for this and he will be given the sins [Alamgiri]. When performing excretion or urination do not have your face or rear pointing towards the sun or moon. In the same text it is not allowed to urinate against the wind or in any place where drops of urine would spray on you.
  • Rule: To go for urination or excretion without covering your head is not allowed and also to take with you anything that has 'Allah' or his beloved 'Prophet's name' on it or any Wall's name on it, is also not allowed [Alamgiri etc.].

The method of istinja and the prayer before it

When you go to perform urination or excretion then it is Mustahhab (desirable) to pray this Dua outside the toilet "Bismillahi Allahumma inni A'oozoobika Minal Khuboothi Wal 'Khabaa'iss"

Then first put your left foot inside the toilet room and when you get near the toilet then remove the clothing from the body but do not remove more than necessary. Then separate the feet and sit down and give weight to your left foot and sit quietly with your head lowered and relieve yourself. When you have relieved yourself, then men should shake their penis slowly from left to right, back and fourth so that all the drops of urine come out. Then you should clean it with a dhela (handful of soil or sand etc.) and then before standing fully upright pull up your clothing. Then step out of the toilet first with your right foot and when you have come outside the toilet, pray this Dua;

"Ghufranakal Hamdo Lillahil Lazi Ath'haba Anni Mayoo Thi'nee Wa Amsaka Alla Ma Yan'fa'ni"

Dua for entering the washroom

Then go into the washroom after praying this Dua;

"Bismilla'hil Azueem Wa Bihamdihi Wah Hamdo Lillahi Alaa Deenil Islami Allahumaj AIni Minatawwa Beena Wajaini Minal Mutat'tah'hireenalazina La Khawfun Alaihim Walahum Yahzanoon"

Firstly wash your hands three times, then pour the water with your right hand and wash with your left hand, and keep the can of water upright so that the water does not splash. Then first of all wash the front parts and then wash the rear part (anus). When washing the rear put pressure on with your breath and put a Dhela and wash the part thoroughly so that after washing there is no smell remaining on your hand. Then with a clean cloth dry the area and if you do not have a cloth then continue wiping the are until no water is left dripping, and if you are doubtful then shake the water off with a hand towel. Then after leaving the washroom pray this Dua;

" Alhamdolilla Hillazee Ja'alaI'Ma'a Tahooraw Wal Islama Nooraw WaQa'idaw Wadaleelan ilallahi Ta'ala Wa'ilaa Jannaatin Na'eem Allahumma Hassin Farji Wa Tahhir Qalbi Wa Mahiss Junubi"

  • Rule: When impurity comes out of the front or the rear, it is Sunnat to clean with a Dhela. If it is washed only with water it is still allowed, but it is Mustahhab to first clean it with a Dhela then wash it with water. Cleaning with a Dhela is allowed when the impurity is not spread more than a Dirham in size, and if it is spread more than a Dirham then it is compulsory to wash it with water, however, it is still Sunnat to use a Dhela first.

Difference in winter and Summer for using a Dhela

After excretion, for a male, the Mustahhab method of using a Dhela in Summer is to use the first Dhela starting from the front and then taking it to the rear. The second one starting at the rear then taking it to the front and finally the third Dhela from the front taking it to the rear. In the winter start the first Dhela from the rear and then take it to the front, second vice-versa and third the same as the first.

  • Rule: Women in every season, should use the first Dhela from front to rear, second from rear to front and the third from front to rear again [Qazi Khan, Alarngiri].
  • Rule: If you cannot gain complete cleanliness by using three Dhelas then use five, seven , nine, meaning in odd numbers.
  • Rule: After performing urination, if you feel that another drop of urine will come, then it is Wajib for you to perform 'Istibrao' meaning after urination to perform some act that would force the urine left inside, to come out. Istibrao is done by swaying, or to hit your feet hard on the floor, or to come down from a high place to a low place or climb up from a low to a high place, or it can be done by crossing your legs over and putting on pressure, or it can be done by clearing your throat or lying on your left side. Istibrao should be performed until you are confident that no more drops will come out. The order of Istibrao is really for males, women should wait a little while after urination then perform cleanliness.
  • Rule: Stones, rocks, torn piece of cloth are the items that should be used for a Dhela, you can use these without any problem to clean.
  • Rule: It is not allowed to use (writing) paper to perform Istinja whether it has something written on it or not.
  • Rule: If a man's hand is disabled then his wife should perform Istinja for him, and if a woman's hand is disabled then her husband should perform Istinja for her. If you are not married and your hand is disabled then you should not use another relation such as son, daughter, brother, sister, in fact in this situation Istinja can be missed.

Leftover water from wuzu

  • Rule: You should not use the leftover water from Wuzu for the purpose of washing.

Leftover water from washing

  • Rule: The leftover water from washing should not be thrown away, but should be used for something else as it is clean and also can be used to perform Wuzu.
 
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